(ll. 109-120) First of all the deathless gods who dwell on Olympus made a golden race of mortal men who lived in the time of Cronos when he was reigning in heaven.Rulers of the world during the Golden Age, the two humanoid Titans, Rhea and Cronos, married and produced the gods and goddesses of Mt. Olympus. It wasn't a smooth relationship, though, since Cronos was aware of a prophesy that he would suffer a fate similar to his father's -- with his mother's connivance and an adamantine sickle, Cronos had castrated his sire. Cronos didn't want to be overthrown, and so swallowed the children Rhea gave birth to.
Section on The Golden Age, from Hesiod on The Ages of Man
Cronos (also spelled Kronos, Kronus, or Cronus) is not the same as Chronos. Chronos is a personification of time, often confused with Cronos.
In Rome, Cronus was blended with the local agricultural god Saturn whose solstice festival was celebrated each year as the Saturnalia.
Read more about Cronos.