The effect of these doctrines can be seen in the sun worship of Pharaoh Akhenaten, who became an uncompromising monotheist. Aldred has speculated that monotheism was Akhenaten's own idea, the result of regarding Aten as a self-created heavenly king whose son, the pharaoh, was also unique. Akhenaten made Aten the supreme state god, symbolized as a rayed disk with each sunbeam ending in a ministering hand. Other gods were abolished, their images smashed, their names excised, their temples abandoned, and their revenues impounded. The plural word for god was suppressed. Sometime in the fifth or sixth year of his reign, Akhenaten moved his capital to a new city called Akhetaten (present-day Tall al Amarinah, also seen as Tell al Amarna). At that time, the pharaoh, previously known as Amenhotep IV, adopted the name Akhenaten. His wife, Queen Nefertiti, shared his beliefs.
Akhenaten's religious ideas did not survive his death. His ideas were abandoned in part because of the economic collapse that ensued at the end of his reign. To restore the morale of the nation, Akhenaten's successor, Tutankhamen, appeased the offended gods whose resentment would have blighted all human enterprise. Temples were cleaned and repaired, new images made, priests appointed, and endowments restored. Akhenaten's new city was abandoned to the desert sands.
Data as of December 1990
Source: Library of Congress Country Studies
Ancient Egypt LOC ArticlesAncient Egypt - 664-323 B.C. Late Period
Ancient Egypt - Cult of the Sun God and Akhenaten's Monotheism
Ancient Egypt - Art and Architecture in the New Kingdom
Ancient Egypt - New Kingdom 3d Intermediate Period
Ancient Egypt - Pyramid Building in the Old and Middle Kingdoms
Ancient Egypt - Old Middle Kingdoms and 2d Intermediate Period