Adverbs as Particles:
Adverbs, prepostions, conjunctions, and interjections are called particles. Adverbs in Latin, as in English, modify other words in the sentence, especially verbs. Adverbs also modify adjectives and other adverbs. In English, the ending "-ly," added to an adjective, makes it easy to identify many adverbs: He walked slowly
- where slowly modifies the word walked, and where slow is the adjective. In Latin, adverbs are mainly formed from adjectives and participles.
Latin adverbs provide information in a sentence about manner, degree, cause, place, or time.
Regular Formations of Adverbs from Adjectives:
For first and second declension adjectives, a long -e replaces the ending. Instead of the adjective carus, -a, -um (dear), the adverb is care. To adjectives from the third declension, -ter is added. From the adjective fortis 'brave', the adverb form is fortiter. The neuter accusative of some adjectives is also the adverb. Multum 'many' becomes multum 'much' as an adverb.The formation of other adverbs is more complicated.
In Latin, some adverbs are formed by adding an ending to an adjective.
Some Adverbs of Time:quando? when?
cum when tum then mox presently, soon iam already dum while
iam pridem long ago
deinde next after
postquam as soon as
cotidie every day
nondum not yet
pridie the day before
denique at last
Adverbs of Place: hic here huc hither hinc from here
ibi there eo thither, to there
illic there quo whither unde whence
ubi where undique from everywhere
ibidem in the same place eodem to the same place
quovis anywhere usque all the way to intro inwardly
nusquam nowhere porro further on citro to this side
Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause: quam how, as
quamvis however much magis more paene almost
propterea because, on this account
ut as, how
Interrogative Particles: whether:
an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, num
whether at all
Negative Particles: not non, haud, minime, ne, nec
nor neque, nec
not only ... but also non modo ... verum/sed etiam
not only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidem
not even ne ... quidem
if not si minus
so as not quo minus, quominus
why not? quin
Comparison of Adverbs:
To form the comparative of an adverb, take the neuter accusative of the adjectival form.
- clarus, clara, clarum, clear (adjective, m, f, and n)
- clarior, clarius, clearer (adjective in the comparative, m/f and n)
- clare, clearly (adverb)
- clarius, more clearly (adverb in the comparative)
There are also irregular comparative forms. The superlative is formed from the superlative of the adjective, ending in -e.
- clarissimus, -a, -um, most clear (superlative adjective, m, f, and n)
- clarissime, most clearly (superlative adverb)