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Latin Adverbs

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Adverbs as Particles:

Adverbs, prepostions, conjunctions, and interjections are called particles. Adverbs in Latin, as in English, modify other words in the sentence, especially verbs. Adverbs also modify adjectives and other adverbs. In English, the ending "-ly," added to an adjective, makes it easy to identify many adverbs: He walked slowly - where slowly modifies the word walked, and where slow is the adjective. In Latin, adverbs are mainly formed from adjectives and participles.

Latin adverbs provide information in a sentence about manner, degree, cause, place, or time.

Regular Formations of Adverbs from Adjectives:


In Latin, some adverbs are formed by adding an ending to an adjective.
  • For first and second declension adjectives, a long -e replaces the ending. Instead of the adjective carus, -a, -um (dear), the adverb is care.
  • To adjectives from the third declension, -ter is added. From the adjective fortis 'brave', the adverb form is fortiter.
  • The neuter accusative of some adjectives is also the adverb. Multum 'many' becomes multum 'much' as an adverb.
  • The formation of other adverbs is more complicated.
  • Some Adverbs of Time:

  • quando? when?
  • cum when
  • tum then
  • mox presently, soon
  • iam already
  • dum while
  • iam pridem long ago
  • primum first
  • deinde next after
  • hodie today
  • heri yesterday
  • nunc now
  • postremo finally
  • postquam as soon as
  • numquam never
  • saepe often
  • cotidie every day
  • nondum not yet
  • crebro frequently
  • pridie the day before
  • semper always
  • umqam ever
  • denique at last
  • Adverbs of Place:

  • hic here
  • huc hither
  • hinc from here
  • ibi there
  • eo thither, to there
  • illic there
  • quo whither
  • unde whence
  • ubi where
  • undique from everywhere
  • ibidem in the same place
  • eodem to the same place
  • quovis anywhere
  • usque all the way to
  • intro inwardly
  • nusquam nowhere
  • porro further on
  • citro to this side
  • Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause:

  • quam how, as
  • tam so
  • quamvis however much
  • magis more
  • paene almost
  • valde greatly
  • cur why
  • quare why
  • ergo therefore
  • propterea because, on this account
  • ita so
  • sic so
  • ut as, how
  • vix hardly
  • Interrogative Particles:

  • whether: an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, num
  • whether not nonne, annon
  • whether at all numquid, ecquid
  • Negative Particles:

  • not non, haud, minime, ne, nec
  • lest ne
  • nor neque, nec
  • not only ... but also non modo ... verum/sed etiam
  • not only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidem
  • not even ne ... quidem
  • if not si minus
  • so as not quo minus, quominus
  • why not? quin
  • Comparison of Adverbs:

    To form the comparative of an adverb, take the neuter accusative of the adjectival form.
    • clarus, clara, clarum, clear (adjective, m, f, and n)
    • clarior, clarius, clearer (adjective in the comparative, m/f and n)
    • clare, clearly (adverb)
    • clarius, more clearly (adverb in the comparative)
    There are also irregular comparative forms. The superlative is formed from the superlative of the adjective, ending in -e.
    • clarissimus, -a, -um, most clear (superlative adjective, m, f, and n)
    • clarissime, most clearly (superlative adverb)

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