1. Education

Roman Timeline - Chronology of Rome to A.D. 476

Part I - The Ancient Roman Republic


This chronology or timeline of events in ancient Roman history is based on Ancient Rome from the Earliest Times Down to 476 A.D., by Robert F. Pennell (1890). Click on the underlined hyperlinks in the timeline for more information about the person or event in Roman history. [The dates before 389 B.C. are uncertain.]

The first table shows the Republic. The second shows the Empire. In the first, all dates are B.C. or B.C.E., if you prefer, while the second table straddles the eras.

753. Foundation of Rome by Romulus.
753-510. Regal Period.
753-716. Romulus.
716-673. Numa Pompilius.
673-641. Tullus Hostilius.
640-616. Ancus Marcius.
616-578. Tarquinius Priscus.
578-534. Servius Tullius.
534-510. Tarquinius Superbus.
510-30. The Republic.
509. Battle of Lake Regillus.
508. Porsena. Horatius Cocles.
494. Tribuni Plebis. Menenius Agrippa.
492. Corioli. Coriolanus.
477. Destruction of the Fabian Gens.
458. War with the Aequians. Cincinnatus.
451. The Decemviri. Appius Claudius. Virginia (Verginia).
396. Capture of Veii. Camillus.
390. Siege of Rome by Brennus. Battle at the Allia River (July 18).
387. The planting of the first military or Latin colonies.
367. The Licinian Rogations.
353. Caere: the first Municipium.
343-341. First Samnite War.
340-338. The Latin War.
338. Antium, the first Roman or maritime colony.
326-304. The Second Samnite War.
321. The Caudine Forks.
312. Construction of the Appian Way.
298-290. The Third Samnite War.
295. Sentinum.
283. Lake Vadimonis.
281-272. Pyrrhus.
280. Heraclea. Cineas.
279. Asculum.
274. Beneventum.
272. Rome mistress of Italy; morality at its height.
264. Period of foreign conquest begins.
264-241. First Punic War.
260. Lipara; Mylae.
257. Tyndaris.
256. Ecnomus [Read Polybius on the naval battle at Ecnomus]. Regulus at Clupea.
249. Drepana.
241. Aegatēs Insulae naval battle with C. Lutatius Catulus. Hamilcar Barca.
237. Sardinia and Corsica acquired, and provincial system established.
229. Illyrican War. Important results.
222. Gallia Cisalpina acquired by Battle of Telamon.
220. Hannibal in Spain.
219. Saguntum.
218-202. Second Punic War.
218. Ticinus. Trebia.
217. Trasimenus. Casilinum.
216. Cannae.
212. Capture of Syracuse. Archimedes.
207. Baeculae. Metaurus.
202. Zama.
214-205. First Macedonian War.
204. Cult of Magna Mater introduced.
200-197. Second Macedonian War.
198. Cynoscephalae.
190. Magnesia.
186. Bacchanalia suppressed.
183. Death of Africanus, Hannibal, and Philopoemen.
171-168. Third Macedonian War.
168. Pydna.
149-146. Third Punic War.
149. Death of Cato the Elder.
146. Destruction of Carthage and Corinth.
143-133. The Numantine War.
134-132. The Servile War.
133. Tiberius Gracchus.
129. Death of Africanus the younger.
123-121. Gaius Gracchus.
118-104. The Jugurthine War. Metellus. Marius. Sulla.
102. Aquae Sextiae.
101. Vercellae.
90-89. The Italian or Social War.
86. Death of Marius.
86-84. Sulla's campaign against Mithradates.
84. Death of Cinna.
80. Reforms of Sulla.
78. Death of Sulla.
80-72. Sertorius in Spain.
73-71. Spartacus.
72-67. Campaign of Lucullus against Mithradates.
67. Pompey conquers the pirates.
67-61. Pompey in the East.
63. Cicero Consul. Catiline.
59. First Triumvirate formed. Caesar's first Consulship.
59. The Leges Juliae. Clodius. Cicero's banishment. Cato sent to Cyprus.
58-49. Caesar in Gaul.
57. Recall of Cicero. Return of Cato.
53. Death of Crassus. Murder of Clodius. Pompey's consulship and
52. Pompey's separation from Caesar.
49. Caesar crosses the Rubicon.
49. Siege and capture of Ilerda.
48 (Jan. 4). Caesar sails from Brundisium.
48. Victory of Pompey near the sea-board.
48 (Aug. 9). Pharsalia. (Sept 28) Murder of Pompey. Caesar establishes Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt.
47. Battle of Zela.
47 (Sept.). Caesar returns to Rome.
46 (Apr. 4). Thapsus. Death of Cato the younger.
45 (Mar. 17). Munda.
(Mar. 15=The Ides of March).
Murder of Caesar. 44 B.C. was also the year:
  • There was an eruption of Mt. Aetna described by Livy

    [Reference: "In the Wake of Etna, 44 B.C.," by P. Y. Forsyth. Classical Antiquity, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Apr., 1988), pp. 49-57.]

  • Founding of a Roman colony in Corinth

    [Reference: "The View from the Isthmus, ca. 200 to 44 B.C.," by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Matthew W. Dickie. Corinth, Vol. 20, Corinth, The Centenary: 1896-1996 (2003), pp. 261-278.]

43 (Nov. 27). The Second Triumvirate.
43 (Dec.) Murder of Cicero.
42 (Nov.). Philippi.
36. Naulochus.
31 (Sept. 2). Actium.

Roman Timeline - Chronology of Rome to A.D. 476

Part II - The Roman Empire

B.C. / A.D.

30-41. The Julian Emperors.
30-14. Augustus.
14-37. Tiberius.
37-41. Caligula.
41-68. The Claudian Emperors.
41-54. Claudius.
54-68. Nero.
68-69. Galba.
69. Otho. Vitellius.
69-96. The Flavian Emperors.
69-79. Vespasian.
79. Destruction of Jerusalem.
79-81. Titus.
80. Destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
81-96. Domitian.
96-180. The 5 Good Emperors.
96-98. Nerva.
98-117. Trajan. Limit of Empire reached.
117-138. Hadrian.
138-161. Antoninus Pius.
161-180. Marcus Aurelius.
180-192. Commodus.
192-284. From Pertinax to Diocletian.
284-305. Diocletian.
306-337. Constantine the Great.

In the year A.D. 337, Constantine the Great, emperor of Rome died. It was also the year:

  • Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans become emperor.
  • Shapur II of Persia begins a war with the Roman Empire.

    [References: "The Last Days of Constantine: Oppositional Versions and Their Influence," by Garth Fowden. The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 84, (1994), pp. 146-170; and "Constantine and the Christians of Persia," by T. D. Barnes. The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 75, (1985), pp. 126-136.]

312. Edict of Milan.
325. Council of Nicea.
337-476. From Constantine to Romulus Augustulus.

In the year A.D. 395, the Emperor Theodosius died. It was also the year:

  • The emperor was re-divided into an eastern and western part with Honorius in charge of the west and his brother Arcadius, in the east.
  • Alaric, king of the Goths, wages war with the Roman Empire, breaking a long peace.
  • Macrobius may have published Saturnalia.

    [Reference: "The Date and Identity of Macrobius," by Alan Cameron. The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 56, Parts 1 and 2 (1966), pp. 25-38.]

  • Poet and rhetorician Ausonius died

    [Reference: "Ausonius and Juvenal," by Robert E. Colton. The Classical Journal, Vol. 69, No. 1 (Oct. - Nov., 1973), pp. 41-51.]


In the year A.D. 410, Alaric I, king of the Visigoths died. It was also the year:

  • Alaric led the Goths in a sack of Rome
  • Emperor Honorius informed the Romans in Britain that they would have to fend for themselves

    [Reference: "Zosimus 6. 10. 2 and the Letters of Honorius," by E. A. Thompson. The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 32, No. 2 (1982), pp. 445-462.]

  • The Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon met to bring the Persian Christians into line with the West. It was also to establish the bishop of Seleucia as the Sassanid church's patriarch and that it followed the Nicene Creed.

    [References: "New References for the Symbol in Early Syrian Christianity," by A. Vööbus. Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Dec., 1972), pp. 291-296; and "Regnum Et Ecclesia," by F. W. Buckler. Church History, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Mar., 1934), pp. 16-40.]

455 Vandals under Gaiseric sack Rome.

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