Ancient Rome from the Earliest Times Down to 476 A.D.
A History of Rome, by Robert F. PennellContents
This compilation is designed to be a companion to the author's History of Greece. It is hoped that it may fill a want, now felt in many high schools and academies, of a short and clear statement of the rise and fall of Rome, with a biography of her chief men, and an outline of her institutions, manners, and religion.
For this new edition the book has been entirely rewritten, additional matter having been introduced whenever it has been found necessary to meet recent requirements.
The penults of proper names have been marked when long, both in the text and Index. The Examination Papers given are introduced to indicate the present range of requirement in leading colleges.
The maps and plans have been specially drawn and engraved for this book. The design has been to make them as clear and open as possible; consequently, names and places not mentioned in the text have, as a rule, been omitted.
Robert F. Pennell. Riverside, California, July. 1890.
1. Place or explain the following: Capua; Numidia; Veii; Pharsálus; Comitia Centuriata; Decemvir; law of Majestas. With what important events was each connected? [Omit one; answer very briefly.]
2. The campaigns of Pyrrhus in Italy.
3. The causes and results of the Samnite Wars.
4. Cato's efforts to reform the government of Rome.
5. (_a_) Education in Rome. (_b_) Amusements at Rome. [Take one]
1. Basilica; Lex Publilia; Patrician; Triumvir; Tribune; Roman citizen, -- what were they? [Take four.]
2. (_a_) How did Augustus obtain his power? (_b_) The reign of Hadrian; (_c_) The first Punic war. [Take one.]
3. (_a_) The Roman religion; (_b_) Decay of the Empire, [Take one]
4. Sulla's rule in Rome.
5. The tribes at the time of the Second Punic War. [4 and 5 are for "additional readings."]
(a) [Take five.] The Allia, Agrigentum, Lilybaeum, Placentia, Cannae, Numantia, Massilia,-where? Mention (with dates) historical events connected with four of these places. [Take any two.]
1. How were the members of the Roman Senate chosen at different times?
2. The origin of the Praetorship. What were the duties of the Praetor?
3. Describe or explain any five: Pater Patratus, Feriae Latinae, Curia, Equites, Flamines, the Licinian Laws, the law of Majestas.
_Questions on the "additional reading."_
[Candidates who have read the books recommended for additional reading may substitute one of the following questions for one of the first three in this group.]
4. [TIGHE.] How did the practical powers of the Roman Senate differ from its theoretical powers?
5. [BEESLEY.] What can be said in defence of the Lex Frumentaria of Gaius Gracchus?
1. Give an account of the races which inhabited Italy before the founding of Rome.
2. What were the principal Greek colonies on the shores of the Mediterranean? For what were three of them celebrated?
3. Describe the three forms of the Roman _comitia_, and trace the development of the _comitia tributa_.
4. What were some causes of the victory of Rome in the Punic wars? The effect of this victory upon Italy?
5. Explain _patria potestas_, _princeps senatus_, _municipium_, _ager Romanus_, _equites_.
Examination For Admission.
1. The Patricians and Plebeians: first causes of strife between them. Steps in the political progress of the Plebeians. Censors. Tribunes. Licinian Laws.
2. Greek influences on Roman life: what were they? In what ways and at what times introduced?
3. The Second Punic War: its causes. Hannibal's great march. Battles in Italy. Hasdrubal. Transference of the war. The result. Why did Hannibal fail?
4. Give some account of the members of the First Triumvirate.
5. Arrange in chronological order, with dates: Actium. The Gracchi. First Samnite War. Pharsálus Regulus. Teutones and Cimbri. Numantia. Capture of Rome by the Gauls. Cicero's first oration against Catiline.
[Time allowed, 30 minutes.]
1. What powers did Octavianus Augustus take to himself? What change did he make in the government of Rome? What changes did Constantine make?
2. The gradual extension of the right of Roman citizenship, the causes of each extension, and dates.
3. What were the possessions of Rome at the beginning of the Christian era? How were they acquired, and when?
4. Explain _praetorian guards; provincia; colonia; tribunus plebis; comitia centuriata_.
5. _Allia, Beneventum, Saguntum, Metaurus, Pharsalia;_ where were they? what happened there, and when?
1. Describe the circumstances under which the tribunate was established.
2. When and where did the principal military events in the war between the Caesarians and Pompeians occur?
3. Sketch briefly the career of Pompeius.
4. What persons composed the Second Triumvirate? In what essential points did the Second Triumvirate differ from the First?
5. When and for what reasons was the right of citizenship given to the provinces?
6. What radical changes in the government were made by Diocletian?
1. Give an account of the Second Punic War (with dates).
2. Explain _tribunus plebis, censor, dictator, imperator_.
3. How were the provinces governed under the Republic, and how under the Empire?
4. What were the causes of the Social War, and what the results?
5. When and where did the following events take place: the defeat of Varus; the first Roman naval victory; the decisive victory over Pyrrhus; the death of Brutus and Cassius; the conquest of the first Roman province?
University of the State of New York.
35th Academic Examination November 22, 1889. -- Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only. 48 _credits; necessary to pass_, 36.
1. Mention two prominent characteristics of the Roman people. (2)
2. Mention one element which Rome has contributed to the civilization of the world. (1)
3. Mention two foreign enemies that fought Rome on Italian soil; state the result in each contest. (4)
4. Describe the situation of any two of the following places, and state an important historical event connected with each: Caudine Forks; Pharsalia; Pompeii; Cannae. (4)
5. Which occurred first: (1) Fall of Carthage, or captivity of Jugurtha; (2) Battle of Actium, or battle of Philippi; (3) Death of Antony, or death of Cicero? (3)
6. What do you understand by a "proscription"? Mention the two which occur in Roman history. (3)
7. What were gladiators? who was their leader when they rebelled? (2)
8. What notable service was rendered to his country by Camillus; Tiberius Gracchus; Marius; Cicero? (4)
9. Mention two laws that are landmarks in Roman history. (2)
10. Give the boundaries of the Roman Empire at the beginning of the Christian era. (3)
11. Briefly describe the system of slavery as it existed in Rome.(2)
12. What was the Haruspex? how did he determine future events? (2)
13. Was the Roman government usually tolerant of religion? on what ground were the Christians punished? (2)
14. Describe the way in which the Romans attacked fortified towns. Describe two engines used by them for this purpose.(3)
15. Whence did Rome derive literature and art? (2)
The Life and Public Services of Cornelius Sulla.
16. To which of the two great parties in Rome did Sulla belong? (1)
17. Tell something of the reforms which he instituted. (2)
18. Mention two wars in which Sulla was engaged. (2)
19. Briefly describe his dictatorship and how it came to an end. (2)
20. Give a sketch of the character of Sulla. (2)
34th Academic Examination.
June 14, 1889. -- Time, 9 30 A.M. to 12 M., only.
48 _credits; necessary to pass,_ 36.
1. Give a brief account of any two races which inhabited Italy before the founding of Rome.(2)
2. On how many hills was Rome built? Give the names of three of them. (4)
3. Narrate the circumstances under which the Tribunes were first elected. (1)
4. What were the "public lands"? what political question arose in connection with them? (2)
5. What king of Epirus made war on the Romans? Why? What grounds had he for hoping to succeed? (3)
6. Mention two reasons why Hannibal hoped to overcome Rome. Why did he fail? (3)
7. What importance in Roman history is attached to the following dates: B.C. 55, 44, 42? (3)
8. Briefly describe the political situation when Caesar crossed the Rubicon. What were the chief consequences of his act? what was "the Rubicon"? (3)
9. What power was intrusted to a Roman Dictator? Mention two instances of this. (3)
10. Give the names of the Flavian Emperors, with some account of one of them. (4)
11. What radical change in the Roman government was made by Diocletian? (1)
12. Give a brief description of Julian the Apostate; tell why he was so called. (2)
13. Mention three objects which a Roman would be sure to point out to a stranger visiting Rome at the time of the Emperor Titus.(3)
14. Mention any three writers of the Augustan age, and the character of the writings of each. (6)
15. Mention two principal causes which contributed to the downfall of Rome. (2)
The Life and Public Services of Caius Marius.
16. To what class of the people did Marius belong? (1)
17. In what war did he first gain great distinction? (1)
18. By the defeat of what peoples did he gain the title of "Saviour of his Country"? (1)
19. How many times was Marius elected Consul? (1)
20. What prolonged struggle had its beginning in the quarrels of Marius and Sulla? what was the result to the Republic? (2)
33d Academic Examination.
March 8, 1889. -- Time, 9.30 A M. to 12 M., only.
44 _credits; necessary to pass_, 33.
1. What was the early form of government in Rome? (1)
2. Tell what you know about the (_a_) Patricians, (_b_) Plebeians, (_c_) Tribune, (_d_) Consul. (4)
3. Give a brief account of the origin of the Comitia Tributa. (2)
4. What was meant by an Agrarian law? who secured the first one? (2)
5. Who compiled the laws of the Twelve Tables? (2)
6. Tell briefly the story of Cincinnatus. (2)
7. Describe the system of Roman roads, and tell something of their effect upon the Republic. (2)
8. Give the immediate cause of the First Punic War. What was its result? (2)
9. Give the name of Rome's first province. (1)
10. In what battle did the Romans finally overthrow Macedonia? What Roman general commanded in this battle? (2)
11. Briefly describe the siege of Numantia. (2)
12. What was the effect of their great conquests upon the character of the Roman people? (2)
13. What was the cause of the Social War? Give the result of this war. (2)
14. Describe the campaign of Pompey against the pirates, giving the cause of the campaign, its length, and the result. (3)
15. What great religious event occurred during the reign of the Emperor Augustus? (1)
16. For what were the following men noted: (_a_) Juvenal, (_b_) Seneca, (_c_) Cato the Censor, (_d_) Fabius, (_e_) Caligula? (5)
17. Of what great movement did the agitations of the Gracchi form a part? (1)
18. What measure was proposed by Tiberius Gracchus? what measure by Caius Gracchus? (2)
19. Briefly describe the death of each of the Gracchi. (2)
20. With which order of the Roman people were the Gracchi allied by birth? with which, by sympathy? (2)
21. Why was the failure of the agitation of the Gracchi of very great significance? (2)
31st Advanced Academic Examination,
June 15, 1888. -- Time, 9.30 A. M. to 12 M., only.
48 _credits; necessary to pass_, 36.
1. Into what three principal classes (or races) may the inhabitants of Italy be divided? To what great race did they belong? (4)
2. Who established the _comitia centuriata_? How did it differ from the _comitia curiata_? (2)
3. Who made the first code of Roman law? (1)
4. What king aided the Greek colonies in their war with Rome? What was the result of the war? (2)
5. In what war was Syracuse taken by the Romans? What was the cause of the siege? Give the name of a famous man who was slain, and state the circumstances of his death. (4)
6. Mention five provinces gained by Rome during the period of conquest, 266-133 B.C. (5)
7. Give the effects upon Rome of the Eastern conquests, in regard to literature and morals. (2)
8. What political parties did Marius and Sulla represent? (2)
9. What two foreign wars were conducted by Marius. (2)
10. What was the decisive battle in the civil war between Pompey and Caesar? (1)
11. Who formed the Second Triumvirate? What illustrious man was slain in their proscription? (4)
12. To what one of the Caesars was Seneca tutor? (1)
13. In whose reign occurred the last great persecution of the Christians? (1)
14. Give a brief sketch of the life and character of Constantine? (3)
15. Who was the last Western Roman Emperor? (1)
The Samnite Wars, And The Relations Of Rome To Subject States.
16. What caused Rome to bring the First Samnite War to an end? (1)
17. Give a brief account of the battle of the Caudine Forks, and of the treaty made there. (4)
18. What was the result of the battle of Sentinum? Give the terms of the final peace between the Romans and the Samnites. (3)
19. In the Roman State what three rights did Rome reserve for herself? (3)
20. Distinguish between _Roman citizens_ and _subjects_ (_or Latins_) (2)
30th Advanced Academic Examination.
March 2, 1888. -- Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only.
48 _credits; necessary to pass,_ 36.
1. Draw an outline map of Italy, and upon it indicate the location of Rome and sketch the river Tiber and the outline of Latium (6)
2. When was the Republic established, and who were the first Consuls? (3)
3. What was the cause of the first Secession, and what were the two conditions of the return? (3)
4. Give an account of the appointment of the Decemvirs and the powers intrusted to them. (2)
5. Mention two provisions of the Licinian laws or rogations. (2)
6. What part of Italy did the Samnites possess, and what was the cause of the First Samnite War? (2)
7. Give the name of one of the Roman military roads, tell in which direction it led, and what towns were at its extremities. (3)
8. In what locality were most of the contests of the First Punic War? (1)
9. Mention one Roman and one Carthaginian general noted in the conduct of the First Punic War. (2)
10. Describe the battle of Cannae, and tell the result of the battle.(2)
11. Mention two reforms or measures favored by the Gracchi.(2)
12. Compare the character of Marius with that of Sulla.(2)
13. Who formed the First Triumvirate, and what element of strength did each contribute to it? (3)
14. What cause was assigned for the assassination of Caesar? (1)
15. Describe in a sentence the character of each of the following: Nero; Trajan. (2)
The Early History of Rome.
16. Into what two principal branches were the early Italians divided, and what part of Italy did they occupy? (3)
17. Tell briefly the traditional story of the founding of Rome. (2)
18. What was the first form of government at Rome, and after what was it modelled? (2)
19. How did the Senate differ from the Comitia Curiata in its membership? (2)
20. What authority did the king have, and what duties did the Senate perform? (2)
21. Describe the religion of the early Romans. (1)
_29th Advanced Academic Examination._
November 18, 1887. -- Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only.
_48 credits; necessary to pass, 36._
1. When was Rome founded? (1)
2. Under what king was the constitution remodelled, and what was the basis of the new constitution? (2)
3. Who was the last king? By whom was the government by kings overturned, and to whom was the power then intrusted? (3)
4. What caused the struggle between the patricians and plebeians, how long did it continue, and how did it result? (3)
5. Give briefly the story of Coriolanus (2)
6. What induced the Gauls to invade Italy 390 B.C., where did they contend with the Roman army, and with what result? (3)
7. Where was Carthage, by what means did it attain its power and wealth, and when did the Romans and Carthaginians first contend in arms? (3)
8. Under what circumstances was Fabius sent against Hannibal, what policy did he pursue, and with what result? (3)
9. Compare Publius Scipio Africanus with Marcus Cato in character and habits. (2)
10. What was the object of Catiline's conspiracy, by what Consul was it defeated, and in what manner? (3)
11. What causes led to the formation of the First Triumvirate? (1)
12. What was the cause of the battle of Actium, and what was its result? (2)
13. Describe the manner in which Octavius Augustus became Emperor, and the character of his reign. (2)
14. By what Emperor was Jerusalem captured, and in what year? (2)
15. Describe the customs of the Romans at meals, and mention some articles used by them for food. (2)
The Geography of Italy, and Its Early Inhabitants.
16. Draw a map of Italy, and upon it sketch the Apennine mountains, and the rivers Tiber and Arno. (4)
17. Upon the map indicate the location of the following: Rome, Naples, Tarentum. (3)
18. What three races occupied Italy in the earliest known times, what part of Italy did each occupy, and from which of these were the Latins descended? (7)
Agrippína, daughter of Agrippa
Agrippína, sister of Caligula
Alexander the Great
Antonínus, Marcus Aurelius
Apollo, worship of
Appeal, right of
Appius Claudius, Decemvir
Appius Claudius, father-in-law of Gracchus
Appius Claudius Caecus
Asculum in Apulia
Aurelius, M. Antonínus
Brutus, nephew of Tarquin
Brutus, Decimus Junius
Caesar, Gaius Julius
Caesar, Lucius Julius
Cato, the elder
Cato, the younger
Catulus, father of the Senate
Catulus, Gaius Lutatius
Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Cicero, Quintus Tullius
Column of Trajan
Constantine the Great
Cornelia, daughter of Cinna
Cornelia, daughter of Metellus Scipio
Cornelia, daughter of Scipio Africánus
Council of Nice
Crassus, the Triumvir
Crassus, son of the Triumvir
Decree of the Senate
Drusus, Marcus Livius
Edict of Milan
Farming the revenues
Five Good Emperors
Foreigners resident at Rome
Forum Julii, in Gaul
Forum Julii, in Venetia
Forum of Trajan
Forum of Vespasian
Germanicus, son of Drusus Germ.
Golden House of Nero
Gracchus, Tiberius (senior)
Hannibal, son of Gisco
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar
Hasdrubal, son-in-law of Hamilcar
Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal
Hasdrubal, son of Gisco
Hortensius, the Orator
Julia, daughter of Caesar
Julia, daughter of Augustus
Julian the Apostate
King of Rome
Land-owners, classes of
Last of the Romans
Lex de Repetundis
Marcellus, nephew of Augustus
Mausoléum of Augustus
Mausoléum of Hadrian
Milan, Edict of
Octavia, sister of Augustus
Octavia, wife of Nero
Offices and officers
Philip of Macedonia
Pliny, the elder
Pliny, the younger
Pompey the Great
Ptolemy, brother of Cleopátra
Ptolemy of Cyprus
Ptolemy V., Epiphanes
Publilian Law, Publilius
Reforms of Caesar
Reforms of Sulla
Rome, Hills of
Sacredness of Officials
Scipio, Consul 218 B. C.
Scipio Africánus, the elder
Scipio Africánus, the younger
Sextus, son of Tarquin
Temple of Aesculapius
Temple of Apollo Palatínus
Temple of Ceres
Temple of Concordia
Temple of Diána
Temple of Janus
Temple of Juno
Temple of Jupiter
Temple of Mars
Temple of Peace
Tenth Legion, revolt of
Terentilius, Terentilian Rogations
Theatre of Balbus
Theatre of Marcellus
Theatre of Pompey
Time, mode of reckoning
Tullia, daughter of Servius Tullius
Valerius, Valerio-Horatian Laws
Valerius, Caesar's Lieutenant
Varro, Consul at Cannae
Varro, Pompey's Lieutenant
Written Code of Laws
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Pennell - History of Rome