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Ancient Rome from the Earliest Times Down to 476 A.D.

A History of Rome, by Robert F. Pennell

Contents

Preface.

This compilation is designed to be a companion to the author's History of Greece. It is hoped that it may fill a want, now felt in many high schools and academies, of a short and clear statement of the rise and fall of Rome, with a biography of her chief men, and an outline of her institutions, manners, and religion.

For this new edition the book has been entirely rewritten, additional matter having been introduced whenever it has been found necessary to meet recent requirements.

The penults of proper names have been marked when long, both in the text and Index. The Examination Papers given are introduced to indicate the present range of requirement in leading colleges.

The maps and plans have been specially drawn and engraved for this book. The design has been to make them as clear and open as possible; consequently, names and places not mentioned in the text have, as a rule, been omitted.

Robert F. Pennell. Riverside, California, July. 1890.

Specimen Examination Papers.

Harvard College.

June, 1889.

1. Place or explain the following: Capua; Numidia; Veii; Pharsálus; Comitia Centuriata; Decemvir; law of Majestas. With what important events was each connected? [Omit one; answer very briefly.]

2. The campaigns of Pyrrhus in Italy.

3. The causes and results of the Samnite Wars.

4. Cato's efforts to reform the government of Rome.

5. (_a_) Education in Rome. (_b_) Amusements at Rome. [Take one]

1888.

1. Basilica; Lex Publilia; Patrician; Triumvir; Tribune; Roman citizen, -- what were they? [Take four.]

2. (_a_) How did Augustus obtain his power? (_b_) The reign of Hadrian; (_c_) The first Punic war. [Take one.]

3. (_a_) The Roman religion; (_b_) Decay of the Empire, [Take one]

4. Sulla's rule in Rome.

5. The tribes at the time of the Second Punic War. [4 and 5 are for "additional readings."]

1887.

(a) [Take five.] The Allia, Agrigentum, Lilybaeum, Placentia, Cannae, Numantia, Massilia,-where? Mention (with dates) historical events connected with four of these places. [Take any two.]

1. How were the members of the Roman Senate chosen at different times?

2. The origin of the Praetorship. What were the duties of the Praetor?

3. Describe or explain any five: Pater Patratus, Feriae Latinae, Curia, Equites, Flamines, the Licinian Laws, the law of Majestas.

_Questions on the "additional reading."_

[Candidates who have read the books recommended for additional reading may substitute one of the following questions for one of the first three in this group.]

4. [TIGHE.] How did the practical powers of the Roman Senate differ from its theoretical powers?

5. [BEESLEY.] What can be said in defence of the Lex Frumentaria of Gaius Gracchus?

September, 1886.

1. Give an account of the races which inhabited Italy before the founding of Rome.

2. What were the principal Greek colonies on the shores of the Mediterranean? For what were three of them celebrated?

3. Describe the three forms of the Roman _comitia_, and trace the development of the _comitia tributa_.

4. What were some causes of the victory of Rome in the Punic wars? The effect of this victory upon Italy?

5. Explain _patria potestas_, _princeps senatus_, _municipium_, _ager Romanus_, _equites_.

Yale College.

Examination For Admission.

June, 1889.

1. The Patricians and Plebeians: first causes of strife between them. Steps in the political progress of the Plebeians. Censors. Tribunes. Licinian Laws.

2. Greek influences on Roman life: what were they? In what ways and at what times introduced?

3. The Second Punic War: its causes. Hannibal's great march. Battles in Italy. Hasdrubal. Transference of the war. The result. Why did Hannibal fail?

4. Give some account of the members of the First Triumvirate.

5. Arrange in chronological order, with dates: Actium. The Gracchi. First Samnite War. Pharsálus Regulus. Teutones and Cimbri. Numantia. Capture of Rome by the Gauls. Cicero's first oration against Catiline.

1887.

[Time allowed, 30 minutes.]

1. What powers did Octavianus Augustus take to himself? What change did he make in the government of Rome? What changes did Constantine make?

2. The gradual extension of the right of Roman citizenship, the causes of each extension, and dates.

3. What were the possessions of Rome at the beginning of the Christian era? How were they acquired, and when?

4. Explain _praetorian guards; provincia; colonia; tribunus plebis; comitia centuriata_.

5. _Allia, Beneventum, Saguntum, Metaurus, Pharsalia;_ where were they? what happened there, and when?

1886.

1. Describe the circumstances under which the tribunate was established.

2. When and where did the principal military events in the war between the Caesarians and Pompeians occur?

3. Sketch briefly the career of Pompeius.

4. What persons composed the Second Triumvirate? In what essential points did the Second Triumvirate differ from the First?

5. When and for what reasons was the right of citizenship given to the provinces?

6. What radical changes in the government were made by Diocletian?

June, 1885.

1. Give an account of the Second Punic War (with dates).

2. Explain _tribunus plebis, censor, dictator, imperator_.

3. How were the provinces governed under the Republic, and how under the Empire?

4. What were the causes of the Social War, and what the results?

5. When and where did the following events take place: the defeat of Varus; the first Roman naval victory; the decisive victory over Pyrrhus; the death of Brutus and Cassius; the conquest of the first Roman province?

University of the State of New York.

35th Academic Examination November 22, 1889. -- Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only. 48 _credits; necessary to pass_, 36.

1. Mention two prominent characteristics of the Roman people. (2)

2. Mention one element which Rome has contributed to the civilization of the world. (1)

3. Mention two foreign enemies that fought Rome on Italian soil; state the result in each contest. (4)

4. Describe the situation of any two of the following places, and state an important historical event connected with each: Caudine Forks; Pharsalia; Pompeii; Cannae. (4)

5. Which occurred first: (1) Fall of Carthage, or captivity of Jugurtha; (2) Battle of Actium, or battle of Philippi; (3) Death of Antony, or death of Cicero? (3)

6. What do you understand by a "proscription"? Mention the two which occur in Roman history. (3)

7. What were gladiators? who was their leader when they rebelled? (2)

8. What notable service was rendered to his country by Camillus; Tiberius Gracchus; Marius; Cicero? (4)

9. Mention two laws that are landmarks in Roman history. (2)

10. Give the boundaries of the Roman Empire at the beginning of the Christian era. (3)

11. Briefly describe the system of slavery as it existed in Rome.(2)

12. What was the Haruspex? how did he determine future events? (2)

13. Was the Roman government usually tolerant of religion? on what ground were the Christians punished? (2)

14. Describe the way in which the Romans attacked fortified towns. Describe two engines used by them for this purpose.(3)

15. Whence did Rome derive literature and art? (2)

The Life and Public Services of Cornelius Sulla.

16. To which of the two great parties in Rome did Sulla belong? (1)

17. Tell something of the reforms which he instituted. (2)

18. Mention two wars in which Sulla was engaged. (2)

19. Briefly describe his dictatorship and how it came to an end. (2)

20. Give a sketch of the character of Sulla. (2)

34th Academic Examination.

June 14, 1889. -- Time, 9 30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

48 _credits; necessary to pass,_ 36.

1. Give a brief account of any two races which inhabited Italy before the founding of Rome.(2)

2. On how many hills was Rome built? Give the names of three of them. (4)

3. Narrate the circumstances under which the Tribunes were first elected. (1)

4. What were the "public lands"? what political question arose in connection with them? (2)

5. What king of Epirus made war on the Romans? Why? What grounds had he for hoping to succeed? (3)

6. Mention two reasons why Hannibal hoped to overcome Rome. Why did he fail? (3)

7. What importance in Roman history is attached to the following dates: B.C. 55, 44, 42? (3)

8. Briefly describe the political situation when Caesar crossed the Rubicon. What were the chief consequences of his act? what was "the Rubicon"? (3)

9. What power was intrusted to a Roman Dictator? Mention two instances of this. (3)

10. Give the names of the Flavian Emperors, with some account of one of them. (4)

11. What radical change in the Roman government was made by Diocletian? (1)

12. Give a brief description of Julian the Apostate; tell why he was so called. (2)

13. Mention three objects which a Roman would be sure to point out to a stranger visiting Rome at the time of the Emperor Titus.(3)

14. Mention any three writers of the Augustan age, and the character of the writings of each. (6)

15. Mention two principal causes which contributed to the downfall of Rome. (2)

The Life and Public Services of Caius Marius.

16. To what class of the people did Marius belong? (1)

17. In what war did he first gain great distinction? (1)

18. By the defeat of what peoples did he gain the title of "Saviour of his Country"? (1)

19. How many times was Marius elected Consul? (1)

20. What prolonged struggle had its beginning in the quarrels of Marius and Sulla? what was the result to the Republic? (2)

33d Academic Examination.

March 8, 1889. -- Time, 9.30 A M. to 12 M., only.

44 _credits; necessary to pass_, 33.

1. What was the early form of government in Rome? (1)

2. Tell what you know about the (_a_) Patricians, (_b_) Plebeians, (_c_) Tribune, (_d_) Consul. (4)

3. Give a brief account of the origin of the Comitia Tributa. (2)

4. What was meant by an Agrarian law? who secured the first one? (2)

5. Who compiled the laws of the Twelve Tables? (2)

6. Tell briefly the story of Cincinnatus. (2)

7. Describe the system of Roman roads, and tell something of their effect upon the Republic. (2)

8. Give the immediate cause of the First Punic War. What was its result? (2)

9. Give the name of Rome's first province. (1)

10. In what battle did the Romans finally overthrow Macedonia? What Roman general commanded in this battle? (2)

11. Briefly describe the siege of Numantia. (2)

12. What was the effect of their great conquests upon the character of the Roman people? (2)

13. What was the cause of the Social War? Give the result of this war. (2)

14. Describe the campaign of Pompey against the pirates, giving the cause of the campaign, its length, and the result. (3)

15. What great religious event occurred during the reign of the Emperor Augustus? (1)

16. For what were the following men noted: (_a_) Juvenal, (_b_) Seneca, (_c_) Cato the Censor, (_d_) Fabius, (_e_) Caligula? (5)

The Gracchi.

17. Of what great movement did the agitations of the Gracchi form a part? (1)

18. What measure was proposed by Tiberius Gracchus? what measure by Caius Gracchus? (2)

19. Briefly describe the death of each of the Gracchi. (2)

20. With which order of the Roman people were the Gracchi allied by birth? with which, by sympathy? (2)

21. Why was the failure of the agitation of the Gracchi of very great significance? (2)

31st Advanced Academic Examination,

June 15, 1888. -- Time, 9.30 A. M. to 12 M., only.

48 _credits; necessary to pass_, 36.

1. Into what three principal classes (or races) may the inhabitants of Italy be divided? To what great race did they belong? (4)

2. Who established the _comitia centuriata_? How did it differ from the _comitia curiata_? (2)

3. Who made the first code of Roman law? (1)

4. What king aided the Greek colonies in their war with Rome? What was the result of the war? (2)

5. In what war was Syracuse taken by the Romans? What was the cause of the siege? Give the name of a famous man who was slain, and state the circumstances of his death. (4)

6. Mention five provinces gained by Rome during the period of conquest, 266-133 B.C. (5)

7. Give the effects upon Rome of the Eastern conquests, in regard to literature and morals. (2)

8. What political parties did Marius and Sulla represent? (2)

9. What two foreign wars were conducted by Marius. (2)

10. What was the decisive battle in the civil war between Pompey and Caesar? (1)

11. Who formed the Second Triumvirate? What illustrious man was slain in their proscription? (4)

12. To what one of the Caesars was Seneca tutor? (1)

13. In whose reign occurred the last great persecution of the Christians? (1)

14. Give a brief sketch of the life and character of Constantine? (3)

15. Who was the last Western Roman Emperor? (1)

The Samnite Wars, And The Relations Of Rome To Subject States.

16. What caused Rome to bring the First Samnite War to an end? (1)

17. Give a brief account of the battle of the Caudine Forks, and of the treaty made there. (4)

18. What was the result of the battle of Sentinum? Give the terms of the final peace between the Romans and the Samnites. (3)

19. In the Roman State what three rights did Rome reserve for herself? (3)

20. Distinguish between _Roman citizens_ and _subjects_ (_or Latins_) (2)

30th Advanced Academic Examination.

March 2, 1888. -- Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

48 _credits; necessary to pass,_ 36.

1. Draw an outline map of Italy, and upon it indicate the location of Rome and sketch the river Tiber and the outline of Latium (6)

2. When was the Republic established, and who were the first Consuls? (3)

3. What was the cause of the first Secession, and what were the two conditions of the return? (3)

4. Give an account of the appointment of the Decemvirs and the powers intrusted to them. (2)

5. Mention two provisions of the Licinian laws or rogations. (2)

6. What part of Italy did the Samnites possess, and what was the cause of the First Samnite War? (2)

7. Give the name of one of the Roman military roads, tell in which direction it led, and what towns were at its extremities. (3)

8. In what locality were most of the contests of the First Punic War? (1)

Ancient Rome.

9. Mention one Roman and one Carthaginian general noted in the conduct of the First Punic War. (2)

10. Describe the battle of Cannae, and tell the result of the battle.(2)

11. Mention two reforms or measures favored by the Gracchi.(2)

12. Compare the character of Marius with that of Sulla.(2)

13. Who formed the First Triumvirate, and what element of strength did each contribute to it? (3)

14. What cause was assigned for the assassination of Caesar? (1)

15. Describe in a sentence the character of each of the following: Nero; Trajan. (2)

The Early History of Rome.

16. Into what two principal branches were the early Italians divided, and what part of Italy did they occupy? (3)

17. Tell briefly the traditional story of the founding of Rome. (2)

18. What was the first form of government at Rome, and after what was it modelled? (2)

19. How did the Senate differ from the Comitia Curiata in its membership? (2)

20. What authority did the king have, and what duties did the Senate perform? (2)

21. Describe the religion of the early Romans. (1)

_29th Advanced Academic Examination._

November 18, 1887. -- Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

_48 credits; necessary to pass, 36._

1. When was Rome founded? (1)

2. Under what king was the constitution remodelled, and what was the basis of the new constitution? (2)

3. Who was the last king? By whom was the government by kings overturned, and to whom was the power then intrusted? (3)

4. What caused the struggle between the patricians and plebeians, how long did it continue, and how did it result? (3)

5. Give briefly the story of Coriolanus (2)

6. What induced the Gauls to invade Italy 390 B.C., where did they contend with the Roman army, and with what result? (3)

7. Where was Carthage, by what means did it attain its power and wealth, and when did the Romans and Carthaginians first contend in arms? (3)

8. Under what circumstances was Fabius sent against Hannibal, what policy did he pursue, and with what result? (3)

9. Compare Publius Scipio Africanus with Marcus Cato in character and habits. (2)

10. What was the object of Catiline's conspiracy, by what Consul was it defeated, and in what manner? (3)

11. What causes led to the formation of the First Triumvirate? (1)

12. What was the cause of the battle of Actium, and what was its result? (2)

13. Describe the manner in which Octavius Augustus became Emperor, and the character of his reign. (2)

14. By what Emperor was Jerusalem captured, and in what year? (2)

15. Describe the customs of the Romans at meals, and mention some articles used by them for food. (2)

The Geography of Italy, and Its Early Inhabitants.

16. Draw a map of Italy, and upon it sketch the Apennine mountains, and the rivers Tiber and Arno. (4)

17. Upon the map indicate the location of the following: Rome, Naples, Tarentum. (3)

18. What three races occupied Italy in the earliest known times, what part of Italy did each occupy, and from which of these were the Latins descended? (7)

Index.

Achaeans
Achaia
Acroceraunia
Actium
Adherbal
Aduatuci
Aediles
Aedui
Aegátes Islands
Aegyptus
Aemilian Way
Aemilius
Aenéas
Aequians
Aesis, R.
Aetius
Aetna
Aetolians
Afranius
Africa
Africánus
Agendicum
Ager occupátus
Ager privátus
Ager publicus
Ager Románus
Agrarian Laws
Agricola
Agrigentum
Agrippa
Agrippína, daughter of Agrippa
Agrippína, sister of Caligula
Alae
Alans
Alaric
Alba Longa
Alban Lake
Alban Mts.
Alesia
Alexander the Great
Alexandría
Allia
Allies
Alsium
Ambiorix
Amphitheatres
Amulius
Anchíses
Ancóna
Ancus Marcius
Andes
Andriscus
Anio, R.
Anthemius
Antiochus III.
Antiochus IV.
Antium
Antonia
Antonius
Antonínus, Marcus Aurelius
Antonínus Pius
Antony
Aóus, R.
Apennines
Apollo, worship of
Apollonia
Apollonius
Appeal, right of
Appian Way
Appius Claudius, Decemvir
Appius Claudius, father-in-law of Gracchus
Appius Claudius Caecus
Appuleian Laws
Apsus, R.
Apulia
Aqua Claudia
Aquae Sextiae
Aqueducts
Aquileia
Aquínum
Aquitáni
Arabia
Arabia Petraea
Arcadius
Archeláus
Arches
Archimédes
Ardea
Argos
Aricia
Ariminum
Ariobarzánes
Ariovistus
Aristobúlus
Armenia
Arminius
Armor
Army
Arnus
Arpi
Arpínum
Arretium
Arsanias, R.
Aryan Race
Ascanius
Asculum in Apulia
Asia
Assyria
Aternus
Athens
Athesis
Atrium
Attalus II.
Attalus III.
Attila
Aufidus, R.
Augurs
Augustan Age
Augusta Taurinórum
Augusti
Augustus
Aulerci
Aurelia
Aurelian
Aurelian Way
Aurelius, M. Antonínus
Avaricum
Averni
Avernus, Lake

Baeculae
Baetis, R.
Baiae
Basilicae
Basilica Julia
Bathing
Baths
Bellovaci
Beneventum
Bibracte
Bibulus
Bithynia
Bocchus
Boian Gauls
Bononia
Books
Bovillae
Brennus
Bridge, Rhine
Bridge, Tiber
Britain
Britannia
Britannicus
Brittany
Brundisium
Bruttium
Brutus, nephew of Tarquin
Brutus
Brutus, Decimus Junius
Brutus, Marcus
Burgundians
Burrhus
Byzantium

Cabíra
Caecína
Caepio
Caere
Caesar, Gaius Julius
Caesar, Lucius Julius
Caesars
Caícus
Calabria
Calceus
Caledonians
Calendar
Caligula
Calpurnia
Calpurnian Law
Camarína
Camerínum
Camillus
Campania
Campus Martius
Candles
Cannae
Canuleian Law
Canuleius
Canusium
Capéna
Capitoline Hill
Capitolium
Cappadocia
Capreae
Capua
Caracalla
Carrhae
Carthage
Carthaginians
Carthágo Nova
Carus
Casca
Casilínum
Cassius.
Cassivelaunus
Catalonia
Catana
Catiline
Cato, the elder
Cato, the younger
Catullus
Catulus, father of the Senate
Catulus, Gaius Lutatius
Caudine Forks
Caudium
Celtibéri
Celts
Cenománi
Censors
Centuries
Centurions
Ceres
Cerialia
Cethégus
Chaeronéa
Chalcédon
Chalons
Christians
Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Cicero, Quintus Tullius
Cilicia
Cimber
Cimbri
Cincinnátus
Cineas
Cinna
Circeii
Circeium, Promontory
Circus
Circus Maximus
Citizenship
City walls
Claudian Emperors
Claudius, Emperor
Claudius, Publius
Cleopátra
Clients
Cloáca Maxima
Clodion
Clodius
Clupea
Clusium
Coena
Cohors Praetoria
Collatínus
Colonies, Latin
Colonies, Maritime
Colonies, Military.
Comitia Centuriáta
Comitia Curiáta
Comitia Tribúta
Comitium
Colosséum
Colossus
Column of Trajan
Columna Milliaria
Columns
Commodus
Constans
Constantine the Great
Constantine II.
Constantinople
Constantius I.
Constantius II.
Conscripti, Patres
Consuls
Consus
Cora
Corcýra
Corduba
Corfinium
Corinth
Coriolánus
Corioli
Corn laws
Cornelia, daughter of Cinna
Cornelia, daughter of Metellus Scipio
Cornelia, daughter of Scipio Africánus
Corsica
Cotta
Council of Nice
Court-houses
Courts
Crassus, the Triumvir
Crassus, son of the Triumvir
Cremóna
Crete
Croton
Cumae
Cures
Curia
Curiae
Curio.
Curtius
Curule Aedile
Curule chair
Curule offices
Cynoscephalae
Cyprus
Cyrenaica

Dacia
Damophilus
Deal
Debts, Debtors
Decemvirs
Decius, Emperor
Decius, Publius
Decree of the Senate
Deiotarus
Dentátus
Dependent Communities
Dictator
Diocletian
Dolabella
Domitian
Domitius.
Drepana
Dress
Drusus, Germanicus
Drusus, Marcus Livius
Duilius
Duoviri Sacrórum
Dyrrachium

Eburónes
Ecnomus
Edict of Milan
Editor.
Education
Egesta
Egnatius
Egypt
Elba
Elections
Enipeus, R.
Enna
Ennius
Epidamnus
Epiphanes
Epírus
Equites
Eryx
Etruria
Etruscans
Eudoxia
Eugenius
Eunus
Euphrátes
Examination Papers

Fabii
Fabius, Cunctátor
Fabius Quintus
Fabius Vibulánus
Fabricius
Faesulae
Farming the revenues
Fauces
Faustulus
Festivals
Fetiales
Five Good Emperors
Flamen Diális
Flamines
Flaminian Way
Flaminínus
Flaminius
Flavian Emperors
Floors
Florentia
Foreigners resident at Rome
Formiae
Forum
Forum Boarium
Forum Caesaris
Forum Holitorium
Forum Julii, in Gaul
Forum Julii, in Venetia
Forum Suarium
Forum of Trajan
Forum of Vespasian
Franks
Freedmen
Fundi
Funerals
Furniture

Gabii
Gabinius
Gabínus
Gades
Galatia
Galba, Emperor
Galba, Servius
Galerius
Gallia Cisalpína
Gallia Narbonensis
Gaul
Gauls
Games
Gela
Genabum
Gens, Gentes
Genseric
Genua
Genucius
Gergovia
Germanicus, Drusus
Germanicus, son of Drusus Germ.
Germans
Glabrio
Gladiators
Glass
Glaucia
Golden House of Nero
Good Emperors
Gordian
Goths
Gracchi
Gracchus, Gains
Gracchus, Tiberius (senior)
Gracchus, Tiberius
Gratian
Greece
Greek Empire

Hadrian
Hadrumétum
Hamilcar Barca
Hannibal, son of Gisco
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar
Hanno
Hasdrubal, son-in-law of Hamilcar
Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal
Hasdrubal, son of Gisco
Helena
Heliogabalus
Helvetii
Heracléa
Herculaneum
Herméan Promontory
Hiempsal
Hiero II.
Hieronymus
Hirtius
Hispania Citerior
Hispania Ulterior
Honorius
Horace
Horatius Codes
Hortensius, Quintus
Hortensius, the Orator
Homesteads
Houses
Huns
Hyrcánus

Iapygia
Iapygians
Ibérus, R.
Icilius
Igilium
Ilerda
Illyrican War
Illyricum
Ilva
Imperator
Imperium
Intermarriage
Interest
Interrex
Isara, R.
Isauria
Isthmian Games
Italians
Italy
Iúlus

Janiculum
Janus
Jentaculum
Jerusalem
Jews
Joséphus
Jovian
Juba
Judaea
Jugurtha
Julia, daughter of Caesar
Julia, daughter of Augustus
Julian Emperors
Julian the Apostate
Julian Law
Juliánus
Juno
Jupiter
Juries
Justin Martyr
Juvenal

Kaeso, Quinctius
King of Rome
Knights.

Labiénus
Lacerna
Lacinian Promontory
Laevínus
Laevínus, Marcus
Lamps
Land-owners, classes of
Lanistae
Lanuvium
Lares
Last of the Romans
Latin Confederacy
Latínus
Latium
Latóna
Laurentum
Lavinia
Lavinium
Legáti
Leges Juliae
Legion
Lentulus
Leontíni
Lepidus, Consul
Lepidus, Triumvir
Leptis
Lesbos
Letter-writing
Lex de Repetundis
Licinian Rogations
Licinius
Liger
Lights
Liguria
Lilybaeum
Lipara Islands
Liris, R.
Literature
Livia
Livilla
Livius
Locri
Longínus
Luca
Lucan
Lucania
Luceres
Luceria
Lucilius
Lucretia
Lucretius
Lucullus
Lupercalia
Luperci
Lupercus
Lupus
Lycia

Macedonia
Macedonian War
Macrínus
Maecénas
Maenius
Magister Equitum
Magna Graecia
Magnesia
Mago
Majestas
Majorian
Mamertines
Mancínus
Manilian Law
Manilius
Manlius, Marcus
Manlius Capitolínus
Mantua
Marcellus
Marcellus, nephew of Augustus
Marius,
Marriage
Mars
Martial
Masinissa.
Massilia
Mauretania
Mausoléum of Augustus
Mausoléum of Hadrian
Maximian
Maximin
Maximus I.
Maximus II.
Meals
Mediolánum
Memmius
Menenius Agrippa
Mesopotamia
Messalína
Messána
Metapontum
Metaurus, R.
Metellus Macedonicus
Metellus Nepos
Metellus Numidicus
Metellus Pius
Micipsa
Milan, Edict of
Milétus
Military Tribunes
Milliarium Aureum
Milo
Minerva
Minturnae
Minucius
Mithradátes
Mityléne
Moesia
Money brokers
Mons Sacer
Moors
Mucra, R.
Mummius
Munda
Municipia
Muthul
Mutina
Mylae
Mysia

Names
Naples
Naulochus
Navy
Nepos
Nero, Consul
Nero, Emperor
Nerva
Nervii
Nicaea
Nicomédes
Nobles
Nola
Noricum
Novus Homo
Numantia
Numantian War
Numa Pompilius
Numidia
Numitor
Nursia

Octavia, sister of Augustus
Octavia, wife of Nero
Octavius
Odoácer
Offices and officers
Ops
Orchomenos
Osca
Ostia
Ostium
Ostrogoths
Otho
Ovation
Ovid

Padua (Patavium)
Palatine
Pales, Palilia
Palmýra
Pannonia
Panormus
Pantheon
Parma
Parthia, Parthians
Pater-familias
Patres
Patrician
Patricians
Patrons
Paullus
Pelusium
Penátes
Pergamum
Peristylium
Perperna
Perseus
Persius
Pertinax
Petreius
Phaedrus
Pharnaces
Pharsalia, Pharsálus
Philip, Emperor
Philip of Macedonia
Philippi
Philippics
Philopoemen
Phoenicia
Picénum
Picts'
Pirates
Pisae
Pisaurum
Piso
Placentia
Plautian-Papirian Law
Plautus
Plebeians
Plebiscita
Pliny, the elder
Pliny, the younger
Pollio
Polybius
Polycarp
Pomoerium
Pompeia
Pompeii
Pompeius, Gnaeus
Pompeius, Sextus
Pompey the Great
Pomptine Marshes
Pontifices
Pontius
Pontus
Poppaea Sabína
Porsena
Postumius
Potestas
Praefect
Praefectúrae
Praeneste
Praetor
Praetorian Guard
Praetorium
Prandium
Private Lands
Private Rights
Probus
Proconsul
Propertius
Propraetor
Provinces
Provincial System
Prusias
Ptolemy, brother of Cleopátra
Ptolemy of Cyprus
Ptolemy V., Epiphanes
Ptolemy Alexander
Publicani
Public Lands
Public Rights
Publilian Law, Publilius
Punic Wars
Puteoli
Pydna
Pyrrhus

Quaestors
Quinctius Cincinnátus
Quinctius, Kaeso
Quintilian
Quirínal
Quirinalia

Radagaisus
Ramnes
Ravenna
Reáte
Reforms of Caesar
Reforms of Sulla
Regillus, Lake
Regulus
Remi
Remus
Rents
Republic
Rhaetia
Rhea Silvia
Rhegium
Rhodes
Ricimer
Roads
Roman Empire
Romans
Rome
Rome, Hills of
Romulus
Roscius
Rostra
Rubicon
Rutilius

Sabines
Sabis, R.
Sacred Mount
Sacredness of Officials
Sagum
Saguntum
Salernum
Salii
Sallust
Samnites
Samnite Wars
Samnium
Samos
Sardinia
Sardis
Saturn
Saturnalia
Saturnínus
Scaevola
Scarpheia
Scipio, Gnaeus
Scipio, Consul 218 B. C.
Scipio Africánus, the elder
Scipio Africánus, the younger
Scipio Asiaticus
Scipio, Metellus
Scipio Nasíca
Scribonia
Segesta
Sejánus
Seleucia
Selínus
Sempronia
Sempronius
Sena Gallica
Senate
Senones
Sentínum
Sequani
Sertorius
Servian Reform
Servile War
Servilius
Servius Tullius
Setia
Sevérus, Alexander
Sevérus, Septimius
Sevérus III.
Sewers
Sextus Lateránus
Sextus, son of Tarquin
Ships
Sibylline Books
Sicily
Silver Age
Silvius Procas
Sinuessa
Slaves.
Social War
Soleae
Solon
Sophonisba
Soracte, Mt.
Sosigenes
Spain
Sparta
Spartacus
Spoletium
Spurius Cassius
Standards
Statius
Stilicho
Stola
Strongyle Islands
Suessiónes
Sueves, Suevi
Sulla
Sulmo
Sulpicius Galba
Sulpicius Rufus
Sutrium
Sybaris
Syphax
Syracuse
Syria

Tablinum
Tacitus, Emperor
Tacitus, Historian
Tarentum.
Tarquinii
Tarquinius Priscus
Tarquinius Superbus
Tarracína
Tarragóna
Tauromenium
Tax-gatherers
Teánum
Telamon
Tellilia, Tellus
Temple of Aesculapius
Temple of Apollo Palatínus
Temple of Ceres
Temple of Concordia
Temple of Diána
Temple of Janus
Temple of Juno
Temple of Jupiter
Temple of Mars
Temple of Peace
Tenth Legion, revolt of
Terence
Terentilius, Terentilian Rogations
Teutoberger Forest
Teutones
Thala
Thapsus
Theatre
Theatre of Balbus
Theatre of Marcellus
Theatre of Pompey
Theodosius
Thermae
Thermus
Thessaly
Thirty Tyrants
Thurii
Tibullus
Tibur
Tiberius
Ticínus, R.
Tigellínus
Tigránes
Time, mode of reckoning
Tities
Titus
Tivoli
Toga
Torquátus
Trajan
Trasiménus, Lake
Trebia, R.
Trebonius
Tribes
Tribunes
Tribúni Militum
Tribútum
Triclinium
Trigánum
Trinacria
Triumphal Arches
Triumphal Procession
Triumvirate, First
Triumvirate, Second,
Tullia, daughter of Servius Tullius
Tullus Hostilius
Tunica
Tunis
Tusculum
Twelve Caesars
Twelve Tables
Tyndaris

Umbria, Umbrians
Utica

Vadimónis, Lake
Valens
Valentinian I.
Valentinian II.
Valentinian III.
Valerius, Valerio-Horatian Laws
Valerius, Caesar's Lieutenant
Valero Publilius
Vandals
Varro, Consul at Cannae
Varro, Pompey's Lieutenant
Varus
Veii, Veientes
Velítrae
Veneti
Venetia
Venice
Venusia
Vercellae
Vercingetorix
Verginius
Veróna
Verres
Verus, Annius
Verus, Lucius
Vespasian
Vesta.
Vestal Virgins
Vestibulum
Vesuvius, Mt.
Veto
Veturius
Via Aemilia
Via Appia
Via Aurelia
Via Flaminia
Via Latína
Via Sacra
Vienna
Villius
Virgil
Virginia, Virginius
Viriáthus
Visigoths
Vitellius
Volaterrae
Volsci
Volsinii
Volturnus
Voting
Vulso

Windows
Writing
Written Code of Laws

York

Zama
Zela
Zeno
Zenobia
Zeugma
Zeugma

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Pennell - History of Rome

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