Ancient Rome from the Earliest Times Down to 476 A.D.
A History of Rome, by Robert F. Pennell
Public Buildings, Squares, Etc.
Rome was built on seven hills, -- the Palatine, the Aventine, the Capitoline, the Esquiline (the largest), the Quirínal, the Viminal, and the Coelian.
There were various public squares (forum = square or park). Some were places of resort for public business, and most were adorned with porticos. The most celebrated square was the Forum Romanum, or simply The Forum. There were also the Forum Caesaris and Forum Trajani. Some served as markets; as Forum Boarium, the cattle market; Forum Suarium, the hog market, etc.
Temples were numerous. The Pantheon (temple of all the gods), built by Agrippa and restored by Hadrian, was dedicated to Jupiter. It was situated outside of the city, in the Campus Martius, and is now used as a Christian church. The Temple of Apollo Palatínus, built by Augustus, was on the Palatine Hill. It contained a library, which was founded by Augustus. The Temple of Aesculapius was on an island in the Tiber; that of Concordia, on the slope of the Capitoline Hill, was dedicated in 377 B.C., and restored by Tiberius. The Temple of Janus was an arched passage east of the Forum, the gates of which were open during war. Up to the time of Ovid the gates had been closed but three times, once in Numa's reign, again at the close of the [Illustration: ROME AND ENVIRONS K. D. Servoss, Eng'r, N. Y.] Second Punic War, and after the battle of Actium. Janus was one of the oldest Latin divinities, and was represented with a face in front and another on the back of his head. From him is named the month of January.
There were several temples of Jupiter, the most famous of which was that of Jupiter Optimus, Maximus, or Capitolínus, built during the dynasty of the Tarquins, and splendidly adorned. (See Chapter V.) There were also numerous temples of Juno, of Mars, and of other deities.
The COLOSSEUM was the largest building in Rome.
There were three theatres; that of Pompey, of Marcellus, and of Balbus; and several circuses, the most famous of which was the Circus Maximus.
The BASILICAE were halls of justice (court-houses). The most important was the Basilica Julia, begun by Caesar and finished by Augustus, which was situated on the south side of the Forum, and the foundations of which can still be seen.
The CURIA, or Senate-house, was in the Forum. Each of the thirty curiae had a place of meeting, called also a curia, where were discussed public questions pertaining to politics, finance, or religion.
The PUBLIC BATHS were numerous. There were Thermae (hot baths) of Nero, of Titus, of Trajan, of Caracalla, and of others, ruins of which still exist.
Pure water was brought into the city from the surrounding hills by fourteen different aqueducts, all of which were well built, and three of which are still in use. The first aqueduct (Aqua Appia) was built about 313 B.C., by Appius Claudius.
SEWERS intersected Rome in all directions, and some were of immense size. The CLOACA MAXIMA, built by Tarquin, was the largest, and is still in use. Its innermost arch has a diameter of fourteen feet.
There are said to have been twenty TRIUMPHAL ARCHES, of which five now remain, 1. The ARCH OF DRUSUS, on the Appian Way, erected in honor of Claudius Drusus. 2. The ARCH OF TITUS, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, built by Titus to commemorate his conquest of Judaea, The bas-reliefs on this arch represent the spoils taken from the temple at Jerusalem, carried in triumphal procession. 3. The ARCH OF SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, built by the Senate in 207 A. D., at the end of the Via Sacra, in honor of the Emperor and his two sons for their conquest of the Parthians and Arabians. 4. The ARCH OF GALLIÉNUS. 5. The ARCH OF CONSTANTINE.
There were two famous MAUSOLEA, that of Augustus, now in ruins, and that of Hadrian, which, stripped of its ornaments, is now the Castle of San Angelo.
The COLUMNS commemorating persons or events were numerous. The most remarkable of these were erected for naval victories, and called COLUMNAE ROSTRATAE. The one of Duilius, in honor of the victory at Mylae (261 B. C.), still stands. It has three ship-beaks attached to each side. Columns were built in honor of several Emperors. That of Trajan is perhaps best known.
Chapter I Geography of Italy.
Chapter II The Early Inhabitants of Italy.
Chapter III The Romans and Their Early Government.
Chapter IV The Early GROWTH and Internal History of Rome.
Chapter V The Dynasty of The Tarquins.
Chapter VI The Consuls and Tribunes.
Chapter VII The Comitia Tributa and the Agrarian Laws.
Chapter VIII The Contest of the Plebeians for Civil Rights.
Chapter IX External History.
Chapter X Wars With Pyrrhus (281-272).
Chapter XI Divisions of The Roman Territory. -- Noted Men of the Period.
Chapter XII Foreign Conquest.
Chapter XIII Rome and Carthage Between the First and Second Punic Wars (241-218).
Chapter XIV The Second Punic War. -- From the Passage of the Pyrenees to the Battle of Cannae. (218-216.)
Chapter XV The Second Punic War.-From Cannae to The Battle of Zama (216-202).
Chapter XVI Rome IN The East.
Chapter XVII The SYRIAN War.
Chapter XVIII Conquest of Macedonia and Greece. (I71-146.)
Chapter XIX The Third Punic War, and Fall of Carthage.
Chapter XX Rome and SPAIN.-The Numantine and Servile Wars. (206-132.)
Chapter XXI Internal History. -- The Gracchi.
Chapter XXII External History. -- Pergamum. -- Jugurthine War (118-104).
Chapter XXIII The Cimbri nd Teutones. -- Political Quarrels.
Chapter XXIV Internal History.-The Social War (90-88).
Chapter XXV Marius and Sulla.-Cinna.
Chapter XXVI Sertorius. -- Spartacus. -- Lucullus. -- Pompey and Crassus.
Chapter XXVII Caesar. -- Cicero. -- Verres.
Chapter XXVIII Troubles at Rome. -- Conspiracy of Catiline.
Chapter XXIX The First Triumvirate.
Chapter XXX Caesar's Campaigns in Gaul.
Chapter XXXI CLODIUS and MILO. -- Death of Crassus.
Chapter XXXII Caesar's Struggle With Pompey. -- Battle of Pharsalia.
Chapter XXXIII Caesar's Operations in Egypt, Asia, Africa, and Spain.
Chapter XXXIV Murder of Caesar.
Chapter XXXV The Second Triumvirate. -- Philippi and Actium.
Chapter XXXVI Augustus (30 B.C.-14 A.D.)
Chapter XXXVII The Augustan Age.
Chapter XXXVIII The Julian and Claudian Emperors.
Chapter XXXIX The Flavian Emperors.
Chapter XL The Five Good Emperors.
Chapter XLI Period of Military Despotism. -- Decline of the Empire.
Chapter XLII Invasions and Distribution of the Barbarians.
Chapter XLIII Roman Literature.
Chapter XLIV Roman Roads. -- Provinces.
Chapter XLV Roman Officers, Etc.
Chapter XLVI Houses, Customs, Institutions, Etc.
Chapter XLVII Public Buildings, Squares, Etc.
Chapter XLVIII Colonies. -- The Calendar. -- Religion.
Chapter XLIX The Roman Army in Caesar's Time.
Chapter L Legendary Rome.
Specimen Examination Papers
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Pennell - History of Rome