Figuring out what Roman dates are on the modern calendar is confusing and requires certain compromises since we use a different calendar.
Difficulty Level: average Time Required: 30 minutes
- Roman dates used Roman numerals (I=1, II=2, III=3, IV=4, V=5, VI=6, VII=7, VIII=8, IX=10, XI=11).
- The Romans didn't have four plus weeks each month. Instead, they had three named days in every month. The date was counted backward from whichever of these three points was closest.
- Romans used INCLUSIVE counting.
- The first day of every month is called the Kalends.
- The 13th day of a short month or the 15th day of a long month is the Ides. (March 15 would be Idus Martias.)
- The fifth day of a short month and the seventh of a long month is the Nones.
- One day before each of these days is called "pridie." (March 14 would be pridie Idus Martias.)
- Don't worry about declining the Latin. Abbreviations were used. A.D. III Id. Mart. would be three days before the Ides of March or March 13, because the Romans used INCLUSIVE counting. A.D. Pridie Non. Mai (one day before the Nones of May) would be May 4. A.D. X Kal. Iun. (10 days before the Kalends of June) would be May 21.
- The months of the year are:
Januarius, Februarius, Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Julius, Augustus, September, October, November, December;
or, if you prefer to avoid the the non-Roman J and u:
Ianvarivs, Febrvarivs, Martivs, Aprilis, Maivs, Ivnivs, Ivlivs, Avgvstvs, September, October, November, December.
- The Roman Republican calendar had different month names and various lengths for the months:
November 29, and