In 415 B.C., during the Peloponnesian War, Athens launched a disastrous expedition to Syracuse: Athenians wound up as slaves working the limestone quarries.
In the early 4th century, Syracuse controlled most of Sicily and part of southern Italy. In the middle of the third century, Sicily became a Punic War battleground. Later, Rome annexed Sicily, following the siege, from 214-212, with the Romans led by Marcellus, during which Archimedes was accidentally killed.
Syracuse became home to the Roman praetor in Sicily.
- The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Simon Hornblower and Anthony Spawforth. © Oxford University Press 1949, 1970, 1996, 2005. Articles: Brian M. Caven "Hieron (2) II" and Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead, Roger J. A. Wilson "Syracuse".
Map: From The Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography, by Samuel Butler (1907/8).