1.)The man on the corner was waiting for a 14 bus.Between article and noun you may find an adjective, as in the number of the route between the article and 'bus'. We avoid articles in front of pronouns in English.
Interpretation: Out of a group of people at the corner bus stop, there was a specific male individual waiting for any bus that went along the 14-bus route.
2.)Wrong: *A he waited at the bus stop.
3.)Right: He waited at the bus stop.
(* is used to mark a construction that is not used today.)
When translating English into Latin, we usually eliminate the 'the,' 'a,' or 'an' article.
4.) Possible translations into English of
'a woman,' 'the woman,' or 'woman'
5.)Possible translations into English of
'a great woman,' 'the great woman,' or 'great woman.'
6.)Translations of 'the woman' into Latin:
7.)Translation of 'a woman' into Latin:
8.)Translation of 'the great woman' into Latin:
In some late Latin the demonstrative pronouns (hic, haec, hoc 'this' and ille, illa, illud 'that') are used as articles.
Please let me know if I've made an error.