The period of the united monarchy begins when the judge Samuel reluctantly anoints Saul
as the first king of Israel. Samuel thought kings in general were a bad plan. After Saul defeats the Ammonites, the 12 tribes acclaim him king, with his ruling capital at Gibeah. During Saul's kingship, the Philistines attack and a young shepherd named David volunteers for a one-on-one with the fiercest of the Philistines, a giant named Goliath. With a single stone from his slingshot, David fells the Philistine and wins a reputation that outshines Saul's.
Samuel, who dies before Saul, anoints David to be king of Israel, but Samuel has his own sons, three of whom are killed in the battle with the Philistines.
When Saul dies, one of his sons is appointed king, but at Hebron, the tribe of Judah declares David king. David replaces Saul's son, when the son is assassinated, becoming king of the re-united monarchy. David builds a fortified capital at Jerusalem. When David dies, his son by the famous Bathsheba becomes the wise King Solomon, who also expands Israel and starts the building of the First Temple.
This information is short on historical corroboration. It comes basically from the Bible, with only occasional support from archaeology.
Page 1: Patriarchal Era
Page 2: Period of the Judges
Page 3: United Monarchy
Page 4: Divided Kingdom
Page 5: Exile and Diaspora
Page 6: Hellenistic Period
Page 7: Roman Occupation