(Israel falls to the Assyrians in 721 B.C.; Judah falls to the Babylonians in 597 B.C.)
In 722 - Assyrians, under Shalmaneser, and then under Sargon, conquer Israel and destroy Samaria. Jews are exiled.
In 612 - Nabopolassar of Babylonia destroys Assyria.
In 587 - Nebuchadnezzar II seizes Jerusalem. The Temple is destroyed.
In 586 - Babylonia conquers Judah. Exile to Babylon.
Diaspora: 722 (Israel) and 586 (Judah).
In 539 - the Babylonian Empire falls to Persia which is ruled by Cyrus.
In 537 - Cyrus allows Jews from Babylon back into Jerusalem.
From 550-333 - The Persian Empire rules Israel.
From 520-515 - Second Temple is built.