Julius Caesar (July 12/13, 100 B.C. - March 15, 44 B.C.)
Julius Caesar was the name of the great military and political leader of the Roman Republic whose assassination on the Ides of March (44 B.C.) forms the plot of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar tragedy. Julius Caesar's famous acts include crossing the Rubicon and thereby starting a civil war in Rome, and adopting his great-nephew Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor because of his familial relationship with Julius Caesar. He fixed the Roman calendar, wrote an historical account of his battles, especially with the Gauls, and had a relationship with the famous Cleopatra, queen and pharaoh of Egypt.