Sack of Rome in 410 by Alaric the King of the Goths. Miniature from 15th Century.
Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.
Rome is known by many names and not just translations into other languages. Rome has had a recorded history for more than two millennia. Legends go back even further, to about 753 B.C. when the Romans traditionally dated the founding of their city. The city is Roma in Latin. Presumably because of its long life, at the time of its sack by the Goths, in A.D. 410, people were shocked that Rome could suffer. It was after this disaster that St. Augustine wrote his City of God. At any rate, because of its tenure, Rome has long been known as the Eternal City, a name the Latin poet Tibullus (c. 54-19 B.C.) used (ii.5.23). Rome has been called Urbs Sacra (the Sacred City). Rome is also called Caput Mundi (Capital of the world) and because it was built on them, Rome is also known as the City of the Seven Hills.
Readers Respond: Do You Call Rome Something Else?