69 - Cleopatra born in Alexandria [see North Africa map]
51 - Ptolemy Auletes, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies, leaving his kingdom to his 18-year-old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII. Pompey is in charge of Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII.
48 - Cleopatra is removed from power by Theodotas and Achillas.
48 - Pompey defeated in Thessaly, at Pharsalus [see map section bC], in August.
- Pompey murdered as he steps ashore in Egypt on September 28.
- Caesar restores Cleopatra to the Egyptian throne.
47 - Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar), Caesar and Cleopatra's son, born June 23.
46-44 - Caesar, Cleopatra in Rome
43 - Formation of the Second Triumvirate: Antony - Octavian (Augustus) - Lepidus
43-42 - Victory of the triumvirate at Philippi (in Macedonia)
41 - Antony meets Cleopatra at Tarsus and follows her to Egypt
40 - Antony returns to Rome
- The Second Triumvirate partitions the Mediterranean:
- Octavian - Commands the western provinces - (Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, Transalpine Gaul, Narbonne)
- Antony - Commands the eastern provinces (Macedonia, Asia, Bithynia, Cilicia, Syria)
- Lepidus - Commands Africa (Tunisia and Algeria)
36 - Elimination of Lepidus
- Octavian controls Africa and becomes the effective ruler of Rome
- Parthian campaign of Marc Antony
35 - Antony returns to Alexandria with Cleopatra
32 - Antony divorces Octavian's sister Octavia
- Western provinces pledge allegiance to Octavian
- Declaration of war on Cleopatra
31 - Battle of Actium (Sept. 2) and victory of Octavian; Antony and Cleopatra seek refuge at Alexandria
30 - Victory of Octavian at Alexandria
- Suicide of Antony and then Cleopatra
- Egypt becomes a Roman province