The Enuma Elish was written on 7 cuneiform tablets that were copied by ancient Assyrians and Babylonians. The Enuma Elish is considered the oldest written creation story, perhaps from the second millennium B.C. The epic was recited or re-enacted in the annual New Year's events, as is recorded in Seleucid era documents.
George Smith of the British Museum published the first English translation in 1876.
- "The Battle between Marduk and Tiamat," by Thorkild Jacobsen. Journal of the American Oriental Society (1968).
- "Enuma Elish" A Dictionary of the Bible. by W. R. F. Browning. Oxford University Press Inc.
- "The Fifty Names of Marduk in 'Enūma eliš'," by Andrea Seri. Journal of the American Oriental Society (2006).
- "Otiose Deities and the Ancient Egyptian Pantheon," by Susan Tower Hollis. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (1998).
- The Seven Tablets of Creation, by Leonard William King (1902)
- "Textual Fluctuations and Cosmic Streams: Ocean and Acheloios," by G. B. D'Alessio. The Journal of Hellenic Studies (2004).