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Aeschylus

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Aeschylus - Greek Playwright

Aeschylus - Greek Playwright

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Ancient Greece Timeline > Classical Age > Aeschylus

Dates: 525/4 - 456/55 B.C.
Birthplace: Eleusis near Athens
Place of death: Gela, Sicily
Occupation: Playwright

Aeschylus was the first of the three great ancient Greek writers of tragedy. Born at Eleusis, he lived from about 525-456 B.C., during which time the Greeks suffered invasion by the Persians in the Persian Wars. Aeschylus fought at the major Persian War Battle of Marathon.

The Fame of Aeschylus:

Aeschylus was the first of the 3 renowned prize-winning Greek writers of tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides). He may have won either 13 or 28 prizes. The smaller figure may refer to prizes Aeschylus won at the Great Dionysia, and the larger figure to prizes he won there and also at other smaller festivals. The smaller number represents awards for 52 plays: 13 * 4, since each award at the Dionysia is for a tetralogy (= 3 tragedies and 1 satyr play).

Exceptional Honor Paid:

In the context of the festivals at Athens during the Classical period, each tetralogy (the tragedy trilogy and satyr play) was only performed once, except in the case of Aeschylus. When he died, allowance was made to re-stage his plays.

As an Actor:

Besides writing tragedy, Aeschylus may have performed in his plays. This is considered possible because an attempt was made to murder Aeschylus while he was on stage, possibly because he revealed a secret of the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Surviving Tragedies by Aeschylus:

  • Agamemnon
    Written 458 B.C.
  • The Choephori
    Written 450 B.C.
  • Eumenides
    Written 458 B.C.
  • The Persians
    Written 472 B.C.
  • Prometheus Bound
    Written ca. 430 B.C.
  • The Seven Against Thebes
    Written 467 B.C.
  • The Suppliants
    Written ca. 463 B.C.

Greek Theater Study Guide:

Importance of Aeschylus for Greek Tragedy:

Aeschylus, one of the three renowned prize-winning Greek writers of tragedy, engaged in a variety of activities. He was a soldier, playwright, religious participant, and probably an actor.

He fought the Persians at the battles of Marathon and Salamis.

Aeschlyus first won the prize for drama in 484, the year Euripides was born.

Before Aeschylus, there was only one actor in tragedy, and he was limited to conversing with the chorus. Aeschylus is credited with having added a second actor. Now two actors could converse or have dialogue with the chorus, or change their masks to become entirely different characters. The increase in cast size permitted substantial plot variation. According to Aristotle's Poetics, Aeschylus "reduced the chorus' role and made the plot the leading actor."

"Thus it was Aeschylus who first raised the number of the actors from one to two. He also curtailed the chorus and gave the dialogue the leading part. Three actors and scene-painting Sophocles introduced."
Poetics 1449a

Aeschylus is on the list of Most Important People to Know in Ancient History.

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