1. Education

Money, Economy, Coins, and Taxes

Information on trade, taxation, currency, inflation and attitudes toward money.
  1. Coins (9)
  2. Numismatics (8)
  3. Tax (2)

Important Roman Coins
Learn the symbolism on some important Roman coins.

Mesopotamian Money
Even before they had coins, the people of Mesopotamia had money that they used for trade. Can you guess what they used as money?

Economic Reasons for the Fall of Rome Part I
Economic policies of the emperors had a heavy impact on the lives of the citizens of Rome. A look at inflation, land and so-called feudalism on the fall of Rome.

Economic Reasons for the Fall of Rome Part II
Rome's economic problems of poor management, the dole, and hoarding combined together to escalate financial stress.

The Fall of the Roman Empire, by Peter Heather
Heather's thesis is that the various assaults on Rome had ripple effects. Rome lost territory and revenue, was spread too thin militarily, and the barbarians on the border kept growing stronger. One attack was not enough, but the cumulative effect caused the fall of the western empire

Argentarii - Roman Money Changers - Argentarium
Argentarii were the Roman equivalent of the Greek trapezitoi who were private bankers

Mommsen History of Rome
Mommsen explains how he arrives at 19th century monetary equivalents for Roman coins.

Economy of Carthage
Roy Decker explains how Carthaginians made their fortunes and provoked the envy of the Greeks and Romans.

Ancient Economies
By Morris Silver. Palace officials played a major role in the Near Eastern economy, but there's evidence private entrepreneurs engaged in commerce, as well.

Economics in Ancient Greece
William Harris' essay considers Gyges' new, Midas' magical, Ixion's inventive, and Laomedon's labor method of generating wealth and Odysseus' sharp dealing.

Interest Rates
By William Harris. Before Greenspan, Pliny suggested adjusting interest rates to improve the Roman treasury.

Origin of Philosophy: Why the Greeks?
Scroll down. Trade and freedom from manual labor provided necessary leisure. “Greek philosophy began in Ionia ... in the wealthiest and most active cities of their time in Greece.”

When Land First Became Private Property
British Archaeology article on the emergence of individual, walled settlements in about 1000 B.C. Plough (vs. hoe) based agriculture demands more land; hence, private property.

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