The culture of southern Egypt of the Predynastic period is described as Nagada; that of northern Egypt as Maadi. The earliest evidence of agriculture, which replaced the earlier hunting-gathering society in Egypt, comes from the north, at Fayum.
- "The Egyptian Predynastic: A Review of the Evidence," by Kathryn A. Bard Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 265-288.
- "The Final Phase of Predynastic Culture Gerzean or Semainean(?)," by Helene J. Kantor. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Apr., 1944), pp. 110-136.
- "New Light on King Narmer and the Protodynastic Egyptian Presence in Canaan," by Thomas E. Levy, Edwin C. M. van den Brink, Yuval Goren and David Alon. The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 26-35.