Role in the Main WarsIt does not appear to have recovered by the Trojan War, which is in the legendary period, and so doesn't appear in the lists of Greek ships and cities sending troops to Troy. During the Persian War, it supported Persia. During the Peloponnesian War, it supported Sparta against Athens. After the Peloponnesian War, Thebes became the most powerful city temporarily. It allied itself (including the Sacred Band) with Athens to fight the Macedonians at Chaeronea, which the Greeks lost, in 338. When Thebes revolted against Macedonian rule under Alexander the Great, the city was punished: the city was destroyed, although Alexander spared the house that had been Pindar's.
"Thebes" The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature. Editied by M. C. Howatson. Oxford University Press Inc.