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Thebes on Map of Greece at the Start of the Peloponnesian War

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Thebes located with respect to Athens and the Gulf of Corinth

Thebes located with respect to Athens and the Gulf of Corinth

Perry-Castañeda Library Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/
Thebes was the main city in the area of Greece called Boeotia. Greek mythology says it was destroyed by the Epigoni before the Trojan War, but then it recovered by the 6th century B.C.

Role in the Main Wars

It does not appear to have recovered by the Trojan War, which is in the legendary period, and so doesn't appear in the lists of Greek ships and cities sending troops to Troy. During the Persian War, it supported Persia. During the Peloponnesian War, it supported Sparta against Athens. After the Peloponnesian War, Thebes became the most powerful city temporarily. It allied itself (including the Sacred Band) with Athens to fight the Macedonians at Chaeronea, which the Greeks lost, in 338. When Thebes revolted against Macedonian rule under Alexander the Great, the city was punished: the city was destroyed, although Alexander spared the house that had been Pindar's.

Source:
"Thebes" The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature. Editied by M. C. Howatson. Oxford University Press Inc.

See: The Theban Stories

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