One who listens to the cries of the world.She adds that it is a translation into Chinese of the Sanskrit Avalokiteśvara, used first in A.D. 252 in a translation of Pure Land Sutra. In this work, Guanyin's task is to bring people to Buddha Amitabha's "Pure Land." Guanyin is not yet a female. It's not until the Song Dynasty, which began in the 10th century [see Chinese Dynasties Timeline] that Guanyin is finally associated with a particular time and place, as a princess named Miao-Shan who dies and returns to the land of the living, appearing as thousand-handed and thousand-eyed Guanyin to save her dying father.
- "The Bodhisattva Guanyin and the Virgin Mary," by Maria Reis-Habito; Buddhist-Christian Studies (1993)
- "Review: Kuan-yin: The Development and Transformation of a Chinese Goddess," by Daniel L. Overmyer; The Journal of Religion (Jul., 2002)
- "The Development of Kuan Yin: Chinese Goddess of Mercy," by John H. Chamberlayne Numen (Jan., 1962)
- "Guanyin" The Oxford Companion to World mythology. David Leeming. Oxford University Press, 2004