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7 Stages in Athenian Democracy

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Democracy and Knowledge, by Josiah Ober

Democracy and Knowledge, by Josiah Ober

Princeton University Press

Ancient Greece > 7 Stages in Athenian Democracy | 12 Phases of Athenian Democracy

The Athenian institution of democracy emerged in stages, in response to political, social, and economic conditions. As was true elsewhere in the Greek world, the individual city-state (polis) of Athens had once been ruled by kings, but that had given way to an oligarchic government by archons elected from the aristocratic (Eupatrid) families. Learn more about the gradual development of democracy (following sociologist Eli Sagan):

  1. Solon (c. 600 - 561)

    Debt bondage and loss of holdings to creditors led to political unrest. The rich non-aristocrats wanted power. Solon was elected archon in 594 to reform the laws. Solon lived in the Archaic Age of Greece, which preceded the Classical period. For context, see the Archaic Greece Timeline.

  2. Tyranny of the Pisistratids (561-510)
    (Peisistratus and sons)

    Benevolent despots took control after the compromise of Solon failed.

  3. Moderate Democracy (510 - c. 462)
    Cleisthenes

    Factional struggle between Isagoras and Cleisthenes following the end of the tyranny. Cleisthenes allied himself with the people by promising them citizenship. Cleisthenes reformed social organization and put an end to the aristocratic rule.

  4. Radical Democracy (c. 462-431)
    Pericles

    Pericles' mentor, Ephialtes, put an end to the Areopagus as a political force. In 443 Pericles was elected general and re-elected every year until his death in 429. He introduced pay for public office (jury duty). Democracy meant freedom at home and domination abroad. Pericles lived during the Classical period. For context, see the Classical Greece Timeline.

  5. Oligarchy (431-403)

    War with Sparta led to the total defeat of Athens. In 411 and 404 two oligarchic counter-revolutions tried to destroy democracy.

  6. Radical Democracy (403-322)

    Stable time with Athenian orators Lysias, Demosthenes, Aeschines debating what was best for the polis.

  7. Macedonian and Roman Domination (322-102)

    Democratic ideals continued despite domination by outside powers.

Classicist and political scientist Josiah Ober sees 12 stages in the development of Athenian democracy, including the initial Eupatrid oligarchy and the final fall of democracy to the imperial powers. For details, see his Democracy and Knowledge. Here are the divisions and the time frame:

  1. Eupatrid Oligarchy (700-595)
  2. Solon and tyranny (594-509)
  3. Foundation of democracy (508-491)
  4. Persian Wars (490-479)
  5. Delian League and postwar re-building (478-462)
  6. High (Athenian) empire and struggle for Greek hegemony (461-430)
  7. Peloponnesian War I (429-416)
  8. Peloponnesian War II (415-404)
  9. After the Peloponnesian War (403-379)
  10. Naval confederation, social war, financial crisis (378-355)
  11. Athens confronts Macedonia, economic prosperity (354-322)
  12. Macedonian/Roman domination (321-146)

Source: Eli Sagan's The Honey and the Hemlock
Also see: Ober: Democracy and Knowledge (Review).

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