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Classical Abbreviations

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Marble Bust of Homer

Marble Bust of Homer

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Abbreviations for Classical Authors and Their Works:

Common Latin Abbreviations | Classical Abbreviations on Inscriptions & Coins | Scholarly Classical Abbreviations

There are certain standard abbreviations used in connection with the authors and their works in Classics. While I generally spell out the names and works of ancient authors, it is not always possible. Besides, you'll find the abbreviations elsewhere. The following is a list of the ancient, non-Biblical writers and their works that you are likely to encounter during your study of Classics. I'll elaborate the first sets of abbreviations and a few throughout the list that might be puzzling.

  • Aesch. Ag.: Aeschylus, Agamemnon
    The author comes first; his work comes next, so this abbreviation means Aeschylus, a tragic playwright, wrote a tragedy called Agamemnon.
  • Aesch. Eum.: Aeschylus, Eumenides
  • Aesch. Lib.: Aeschylus, Libation Bearers
  • Aesch. PB: Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound
  • Aesch. Pers.: Aeschylus, Persians
  • Aesch. Seven: Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes
  • Aesch. Supp.: Aeschylus, Suppliant Maidens
  • Aeschin. 1: Aeschines, Against Timarchus
  • Aeschin. 2: Aeschines, On the Embassy
  • Aeschin. 3: Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon
  • Amm.: Ammianus Marcellinus, Rerum Gestarum
  • Andoc. 1: Andocides, On the Mysteries
  • Andoc. 2: Andocides, On his Return
  • Andoc. 3: Andocides, On the Peace
  • Andoc. 4: Andocides, Against Alcibiades
  • Antiph. 1: Antiphon, Against the Stepmother for Poisoning
  • Antiph. 2: Antiphon, First Tetralogy
  • Antiph. 3: Antiphon, Second Tetralogy
  • Antiph. 4: Antiphon, Third Tetralogy
  • Antiph. 5: Antiphon, On the murder of Herodes
  • Antiph. 6: Antiphon, On the Choreutes
  • Apollod.: Pseudo-Apollodorus, Library
  • Apollod. Epit.: Pseudo-Apollodorus, Epitome
  • Apollon.: Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica
    Nothing besides the Argonautica is attributed to Apollonius.
  • App. BC: Appian, Civil Wars
    BC stands for bellum civile which means civil war.
  • App. Gall.: Appian, Gallic History
  • App. Hann.: Appian, Hannibalic War
  • App. Hisp.: Appian, Wars in Spain
  • App. Ill.: Appian, Illyrian Wars
  • App. Ital.: Appian, Italy
  • App. Mac.: Appian, Macedonian Affairs
  • App. Mith.: Appian, Mithridatic Wars
  • App. Praef.: Appian, Preface
    Praef. is short for Praefatio which means preface.
  • App. Pun.: Appian, Punic Wars
  • App. Reg.: Appian, Kings
  • App. Sam.: Appian, Samnite History
  • App. Sic.: Appian, Sicily and the Other Islands
  • App. Syr.: Appian, Syrian Wars
  • Aret. CA: Aretaeus, De curatione acutorum morborum libri duo
  • Aret. CD: Aretaeus, De curatione diuturnorum morborum libri duo
  • Aret. SA: Aretaeus, De causis et signis acutorum morborum (lib. 1)
  • Aret. SD: Aretaeus, De causis et signis acutorum morborum (lib. 2)
  • Aristoph. Ach.: Aristophanes, Acharnians
  • Aristoph. Birds: Aristophanes, Birds
  • Aristoph. Cl.: Aristophanes, Clouds
  • Aristoph. Eccl.: Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae
  • Aristoph. Frogs: Aristophanes, Frogs
  • Aristoph. Kn.: Aristophanes, Knights
  • Aristoph. Lys.: Aristophanes, Lysistrata
  • Aristoph. Peace: Aristophanes, Peace
  • Aristoph. Pl.: Aristophanes, Plutus
  • Aristoph. Thes.: Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae
  • Aristoph. Wasps: Aristophanes, Wasps
  • Aristot. Ath. Pol.: Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians
  • Aristot. Const. Ath.: Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians
  • Aristot. Econ.: Aristotle, Economics
  • Aristot. Eud. Eth.: Aristotle, Eudemian Ethics
  • Aristot. Met.: Aristotle, Metaphysics
  • Aristot. Nic. Eth.: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics
  • Aristot. Poet.: Aristotle, Poetics
  • Aristot. Pol.: Aristotle, Politics
  • Aristot. Rh.: Aristotle, Rhetoric
  • Aristot. Vir.: Aristotle, Virtues and Vices
  • Aug. Anc.: Augustus, Res Gestae
    The name of the work by Augustus is given as both Monumentum Ancyranum and Res Gestae Divi Augusti.
  • Aug. RG: Augustus, Res Gestae
  • Bacchyl. Dith.: Bacchylides, Dithyrambs
  • Bacchyl. Ep.: Bacchylides, Epinicians
  • Boe. Cons.: Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy
  • Caes. Civ.: Caesar, Civil War
  • Caes. Gal.: Caesar, Gallic War
  • Call. Ap.: Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo
  • Call. Cer.: Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter
  • Call. Del.: Callimachus, Hymn to Delos
  • Call. Dem.: Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter
  • Call. Dian.: Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis
  • Call. Epigr.: Callimachus, Epigrams
  • Call. H. 1: Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus
  • Call. H. 2: Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo
  • Call. H. 3: Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis
  • Call. H. 4: Callimachus, Hymn to Delos
  • Call. H. 5: Callimachus, Hymn to Athena
  • Call. H. 6: Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter
  • Call. Jov.: Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus
  • Call. Lav.: Callimachus, Hymn to Athena
  • Catul.: Catullus, Poems
  • Cels.: A. Cornelius Celsus, De Medicina
  • Cic. Ac.: Cicero, Academica
  • Cic. Agr.: Cicero, On the Agrarian Law
  • Cic. Amic.: Cicero, De Amicitia
  • Cic. Arch.: Cicero, For Archias
  • Cic. Att.: Cicero, Letters to Atticus
  • Cic. Balb.: Cicero, For Cornelius Balbus
  • Cic. Caec.: Cicero, For Aulus Caecina
  • Cic. Cael.: Cicero, For Marcus Caelius
  • Cic. Catil.: Cicero, Against Catiline
  • Cic. Clu.: Cicero, For Aulus Cluentius
  • Cic. Deiot.: Cicero, For King Deiotarius
  • Cic. Div.: Cicero, De Divinatione
  • Cic. Div. Caec.: Cicero, Divinatio against Q. Caecilius
  • Cic. Dom.: Cicero, On his House
  • Cic. Fam.: Cicero, Letters to his Friends
  • Cic. Fat.: Cicero, De Fato
  • Cic. Fin.: Cicero, de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum
  • Cic. Flac.: Cicero, For Flaccus
  • Cic. Font.: Cicero, For Marcus Fonteius
  • Cic. Har.: Cicero, On the Responses of the Haruspices
  • Cic. Leg.: Cicero, De Legibus
  • Cic. Lig.: Cicero, For Ligarius
  • Cic. Luc.: Cicero, Lucullus
  • Cic. Man.: Cicero, On Pompey's Command
  • Cic. Marc.: Cicero, For Marcellus
  • Cic. Mil.: Cicero, For Milo
  • Cic. Mur.: Cicero, For Lucius Murena
  • Cic. N.D.: Cicero, de Natura Deorum
  • Cic. Off.: Cicero, De Officiis
  • Cic. Parad.: Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum
  • Cic. Phil.: Cicero, Philippics
  • Cic. Pis.: Cicero, Against Piso
  • Cic. Planc.: Cicero, For Plancius
  • Cic. Prov.: Cicero, On the Consular Provinces
  • Cic. Q. Rosc.: Cicero, For Quintus Roscius the Actor
  • Cic. Q. fr.: Cicero, Letters to his brother Quintus
  • Cic. Quinct.: Cicero, For Publius Quinctius
  • Cic. Rab. Perd.: Cicero, For Rabirius on a Charge of Treason
  • Cic. Rab. Post.: Cicero, For Rabirius Postumus
  • Cic. Red. Pop.: Cicero, To the Citizens after his Return
  • Cic. Red. Sen.: Cicero, In the Senate after his Return
  • Cic. Rep.: Cicero, De Republica
  • Cic. S. Rosc.: Cicero, For Sextus Roscius of Ameria
  • Cic. Scaur.: Cicero, For Aemilius Scaurus
  • Cic. Sen.: Cicero, De Senectute
  • Cic. Sest.: Cicero, For Sestius
  • Cic. Sul.: Cicero, For Sulla
  • Cic. Tul.: Cicero, For Marcus Tullius
  • Cic. Tusc.: Cicero, Tusculanae Disputationes
  • Cic. Vat.: Cicero, Against Vatinius
  • Cic. Ver.: Cicero, Against Verres
  • Cic. ad Brut.: Cicero, Letters to Brutus
  • Cic. de Orat.: Cicero, On Oratory
  • D. L.: Diogenes Laertius, Vitae philosophorum
  • Dem. 1: Demosthenes, Olynthiac 1
  • Dem. 10: Demosthenes, Philippic 4
  • Dem. 11: Demosthenes, Reply to Philip
  • Dem. 12: Demosthenes, Philip
  • Dem. 13: Demosthenes, On Organization
  • Dem. 14: Demosthenes, On the Navy
  • Dem. 15: Demosthenes, On the Liberty of the Rhodians
  • Dem. 16: Demosthenes, For the Megalopolitans
  • Dem. 17: Demosthenes, On the Accession of Alexander
  • Dem. 18: Demosthenes, On the Crown
  • Dem. 19: Demosthenes, On the False Embassy
  • Dem. 2: Demosthenes, Olynthiac 2
  • Dem. 20: Demosthenes, Against Leptines
  • Dem. 21: Demosthenes, Against Midias
  • Dem. 22: Demosthenes, Against Androtion
  • Dem. 23: Demosthenes, Against Aristocrates
  • Dem. 24: Demosthenes, Against Timocrates
  • Dem. 25: Demosthenes, Against Aristogiton 1
  • Dem. 26: Demosthenes, Against Aristogiton 2
  • Dem. 27: Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 1
  • Dem. 28: Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 2
  • Dem. 29: Demosthenes, Against Aphobus
  • Dem. 3: Demosthenes, Olynthiac 3
  • Dem. 30: Demosthenes, Against Ontenor
  • Dem. 31: Demosthenes, Against Ontenor
  • Dem. 32: Demosthenes, Against Zenothemis
  • Dem. 33: Demosthenes, Against Apatourius
  • Dem. 34: Demosthenes, Against Phormio
  • Dem. 35: Demosthenes, Against Lacritus
  • Dem. 36: Demosthenes, For Phormio
  • Dem. 37: Demosthenes, Against Pantaenetus
  • Dem. 38: Demosthenes, Against Nausimachus and Xenopeithes
  • Dem. 39: Demosthenes, Against Boeotus 1
  • Dem. 4: Demosthenes, Philippic 1
  • Dem. 40: Demosthenes, Against Boeotus 2
  • Dem. 41: Demosthenes, Against Spudias
  • Dem. 42: Demosthenes, Against Phaenippus
  • Dem. 43: Demosthenes, Against Macartatus
  • Dem. 44: Demosthenes, Against Leochares
  • Dem. 45: Demosthenes, Against Stephanus 1
  • Dem. 46: Demosthenes, Against Stephanus 2
  • Dem. 47: Demosthenes, Against Evergus and Mnesibulus
  • Dem. 48: Demosthenes, Against Olympiodorus
  • Dem. 49: Demosthenes, Against Timotheus
  • Dem. 5: Demosthenes, On the Peace
  • Dem. 50: Demosthenes, Against Polycles
  • Dem. 51: Demosthenes, On the Trierarchic Crown
  • Dem. 52: Demosthenes, Against Callippus
  • Dem. 53: Demosthenes, Against Nicostratus
  • Dem. 54: Demosthenes, Against Conon
  • Dem. 55: Demosthenes, Against Callicles
  • Dem. 56: Demosthenes, Against Dionysodorus
  • Dem. 57: Demosthenes, Against Eubulides
  • Dem. 58: Demosthenes, Against Theocrines
  • Dem. 59: Demosthenes, Against Neaera
  • Dem. 6: Demosthenes, Philippic 2
  • Dem. 60: Demosthenes, Funeral Speech
  • Dem. 61: Demosthenes, Erotic Essay
  • Dem. 7: Demosthenes, On the Halonnesus
  • Dem. 8: Demosthenes, On the Chersonese
  • Dem. 9: Demosthenes, Philippic 3
  • Dem. Ex.: Demosthenes, Exordia
  • Dem. L.: Demosthenes, Letters
  • Demad. 1: Demades, On the Twelve Years
  • Din. 1: Dinarchus, Against Demosthenes
  • Din. 2: Dinarchus, Against Aristogiton
  • Din. 3: Dinarchus, Against Philocles
  • Diod.: Diodorus, Historical Library
  • Euc.: Euclid, Elements
  • Eur. Alc.: Euripides, Alcestis
  • Eur. Andr.: Euripides, Andromache
  • Eur. Ba.: Euripides, Bacchae
  • Eur. Cycl.: Euripides, Cyclops
  • Eur. El.: Euripides, Electra
  • Eur. Hec.: Euripides, Hecuba
  • Eur. Hel.: Euripides, Helen
  • Eur. Her.: Euripides, Heracles
  • Eur. Heraclid.: Euripides, Heraclidae
  • Eur. Hipp.: Euripides, Hippolytus
  • Eur. IA: Euripides, Iphigeneia in Aulis
  • Eur. IT: Euripides, Iphigeneia in Taurus
  • Eur. Ion: Euripides, Ion
  • Eur. Med.: Euripides, Medea
  • Eur. Orest.: Euripides, Orestes
  • Eur. Phoen.: Euripides, Phoenician Women
  • Eur. Rh.: Euripides, Rhesus
  • Eur. Supp.: Euripides, Suppliants
  • Eur. Tro.: Euripides, Trojan Women
  • Gal. Nat. Fac.: Galen, De naturalibus facultatibus
  • Gel.: Gellius, Noctes Atticae
  • HH 1: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 1 to Dionysus
  • HH 10: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 10 to Aphrodite
  • HH 11: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 11 to Athena
  • HH 12: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 12 to Hera
  • HH 13: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 13 to Demeter
  • HH 14: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 14 to the Mother of the Gods
  • HH 15: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 15 to Heracles
  • HH 16: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 16 to Asclepius
  • HH 17: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 17 to the Dioscuri
  • HH 18: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 18 to Hermes
  • HH 19: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 19 to Pan
  • HH 2: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 2 to Demeter
  • HH 20: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 20 to Hephaestus
  • HH 21: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 21 to Apollo
  • HH 22: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 22 to Poseidon
  • HH 23: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 23 to Zeus
  • HH 24: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 24 to Hestia
  • HH 25: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 25 to the Muses and Apollo
  • HH 26: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 26 to Dionysus
  • HH 27: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 27 to Artemis
  • HH 28: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 28 to Athena
  • HH 29: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 29 to Hestia
  • HH 3: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 3 to Apollo
  • HH 30: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 30 to Earth
  • HH 31: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 31 to Helios
  • HH 32: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 32 to Selene
  • HH 33: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 33 to the Dioscuri
  • HH 4: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 4 to Hermes
  • HH 5: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 5 to Aphrodite
  • HH 6: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 6 to Aphrodite
  • HH 7: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 7 to Dionysus
  • HH 8: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 8 to Ares
  • HH 9: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 9 to Artemis
  • Hdt.: Herodotus, Histories
  • Hes. Sh.: Hesiod, Shield of Heracles
  • Hes. Th.: Hesiod, Theogony
  • Hes. WD: Hesiod, Works and Days
  • Hirt. Gal.: Caesar, Gallic War
  • Hom. Il.: Homer, Iliad
  • Hom. Od.: Homer, Odyssey
  • Hor. Ars: Horace, Ars Poetica
  • Hor. Carm.: Horace, Odes
  • Hor. S.: Horace, Satires
  • Hp. Acut.: Hippocrates, De diaeta in morbis acutis
  • Hp. Acut. Sp.: Hippocrates, De diaeta acutorum
  • Hp. Aer.: Hippocrates, De aere aquis et locis
  • Hp. Alim.: Hippocrates, De alimento
  • Hp. Aph.: Hippocrates, Aphorismi
  • Hp. Art.: Hippocrates, De articulis
  • Hp. Epid.: Hippocrates, De morbis popularibus
  • Hp. Fist.: Hippocrates, De fistulis
  • Hp. Fract.: Hippocrates, De fracturis
  • Hp. Haem.: Hippocrates, De haemorrhoidibus
  • Hp. Jusj.: Hippocrates, Jusjurandum
  • Hp. Lex: Hippocrates, Lex
  • Hp. Mochl.: Hippocrates, Vectiarius
  • Hp. Morb. Sacr.: Hippocrates, De morbo sacro
  • Hp. Off.: Hippocrates, De officina medici
  • Hp. Praec.: Hippocrates, Praeceptiones
  • Hp. Prog.: Hippocrates, Prognosticon
  • Hp. Ulc.: Hippocrates, De ulceribus
  • Hp. VC: Hippocrates, De capitis vulneribus
  • Hp. VM: Hippocrates, De prisca medicina
  • Hyp. 1: Hyperides, In Defence of Lycophron
  • Hyp. 2: Hyperides, Against Philippides
  • Hyp. 3: Hyperides, Against Athenogenes
  • Hyp. 4: Hyperides, In Defence of Euxenippus
  • Hyp. 5: Hyperides, Against Demosthenes
  • Hyp. 6: Hyperides, Funeral Oration
  • Isaeus 1: Isaeus, Cleonymus
  • Isaeus 10: Isaeus, Aristarchus
  • Isaeus 11: Isaeus, Hagnias
  • Isaeus 12: Isaeus, Euphiletus
  • Isaeus 2: Isaeus, Menecles
  • Isaeus 3: Isaeus, Pyrrhus
  • Isaeus 4: Isaeus, Nicostratus
  • Isaeus 5: Isaeus, Dicaeogenes
  • Isaeus 6: Isaeus, Philoctemon
  • Isaeus 7: Isaeus, Apollodorus
  • Isaeus 8: Isaeus, Ciron
  • Isaeus 9: Isaeus, Astyphilus
  • Isoc. 1: Isocrates, To Demonicus
  • Isoc. 10: Isocrates, Helen
  • Isoc. 11: Isocrates, Busiris
  • Isoc. 12: Isocrates, Panathenaicus
  • Isoc. 13: Isocrates, Against the Sophists
  • Isoc. 14: Isocrates, Plataicus
  • Isoc. 15: Isocrates, Antidosis
  • Isoc. 16: Isocrates, On the team of horses
  • Isoc. 17: Isocrates, Trapeziticus
  • Isoc. 18: Isocrates, Against Callimachus
  • Isoc. 19: Isocrates, Aegineticus
  • Isoc. 2: Isocrates, To Nicocles
  • Isoc. 20: Isocrates, Against Lochites
  • Isoc. 21: Isocrates, Against Euthynus
  • Isoc. 3: Isocrates, Nicocles or the Cyprians
  • Isoc. 4: Isocrates, Panegyricus
  • Isoc. 5: Isocrates, To Philip
  • Isoc. 6: Isocrates, Archidamus
  • Isoc. 7: Isocrates, Areopagiticus
  • Isoc. 8: Isocrates, On the Peace
  • Isoc. 9: Isocrates, Evagoras
  • Isoc. L. 1: Isocrates, Ad Dionysium
  • Isoc. L. 2: Isocrates, Ad Philippum
  • Isoc. L. 3: Isocrates, Ad Philippum
  • Isoc. L. 4: Isocrates, Ad Antipatrum
  • Isoc. L. 5: Isocrates, Ad Alexandrum
  • Isoc. L. 6: Isocrates, Ad filios Jasonis
  • Isoc. L. 7: Isocrates, Ad Timotheum
  • Isoc. L. 8: Isocrates, Ad reges Mytilenaeos
  • Isoc. L. 9: Isocrates, Ad Archidamum
  • J. AJ: Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities
  • J. Ap.: Flavius Josephus, Against Apion
  • J. BJ: Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War
  • J. Vit.: Flavius Josephus, Life of Josephus
  • LSJ: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
  • Liv. 1: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 1
  • Liv. 10: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 10
  • Liv. 11: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 11, Summary
  • Liv. 12: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 12, Summary
  • Liv. 13: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 13, Summary
  • Liv. 14: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 14, Summary
  • Liv. 15: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 15, Summary
  • Liv. 16: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 16, Summary
  • Liv. 17: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 17, Summary
  • Liv. 18: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 18, Summary
  • Liv. 19: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 19, Summary
  • Liv. 2: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 2
  • Liv. 20: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 20, Summary
  • Liv. 21: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 21
  • Liv. 22: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 22
  • Liv. 23: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 23
  • Liv. 24: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 24
  • Liv. 25: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 25
  • Liv. 26: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 26
  • Liv. 27: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 27
  • Liv. 28: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 28
  • Liv. 29: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 29
  • Liv. 3: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 3
  • Liv. 30: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 30
  • Liv. 31: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 31
  • Liv. 32: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 32
  • Liv. 33: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 33
  • Liv. 34: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 34
  • Liv. 35: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 35
  • Liv. 36: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 36
  • Liv. 37: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 37
  • Liv. 38: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 38
  • Liv. 39: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 39
  • Liv. 4: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 4
  • Liv. 40: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 40
  • Liv. 41: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 41
  • Liv. 42: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 42
  • Liv. 43: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 43
  • Liv. 44: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 44
  • Liv. 45: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 45
  • Liv. 5: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 5
  • Liv. 6: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 6
  • Liv. 7: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 7
  • Liv. 8: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 8
  • Liv. 9: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 9
  • Liv. Frag.: Livy, The History of Rome, Fragments
  • Luc.: Lucan, Civil War
  • Lucr.: Lucretius, De Rerum Natura
  • Lyc. 1: Lycurgus, Against Leocrates
  • Lys. 1: Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes
  • Lys. 10: Lysias, Against Theomnestus 1
  • Lys. 11: Lysias, Against Theomnestus 2
  • Lys. 12: Lysias, Against Eratosthenes
  • Lys. 13: Lysias, Against Agoratus
  • Lys. 14: Lysias, Against Alcibiades 1
  • Lys. 15: Lysias, Against Alcibiades 2
  • Lys. 16: Lysias, For Mantitheus
  • Lys. 17: Lysias, On the Property of Eraton
  • Lys. 18: Lysias, On the Confiscation of the Property of the Brother of Nicias
  • Lys. 19: Lysias, On the Property of Aristophanes
  • Lys. 2: Lysias, Funeral Oration
  • Lys. 20: Lysias, For Polystratus
  • Lys. 21: Lysias, Defence against a Charge of Taking Bribes
  • Lys. 22: Lysias, Against the Corn Dealers
  • Lys. 23: Lysias, Against Pancleon
  • Lys. 24: Lysias, On the Refusal of a Pension
  • Lys. 25: Lysias, Defence against a Charge of subverting the Democracy
  • Lys. 26: Lysias, On the Scrutiny of Evandros
  • Lys. 27: Lysias, Against Epicrates and his Fellow Envoys
  • Lys. 28: Lysias, Against Ergocles
  • Lys. 29: Lysias, Against Philocrates
  • Lys. 3: Lysias, Against Simon
  • Lys. 30: Lysias, Against Nicomachus
  • Lys. 31: Lysias, Against Philon
  • Lys. 32: Lysias, Against Diogeiton
  • Lys. 33: Lysias, Olympic Oration
  • Lys. 34: Lysias, Against the Subversion of the Ancestral Constitution of Athens
  • Lys. 4: Lysias, On a Wound by Premeditation
  • Lys. 5: Lysias, For Callias
  • Lys. 6: Lysias, Against Andocides
  • Lys. 7: Lysias, On the Olive Stump
  • Lys. 8: Lysias, Accusation of Calumny
  • Lys. 9: Lysias, For the Soldier
  • Nep. Ag.: Cornelius Nepos, Agesilaus
  • Nep. Alc.: Cornelius Nepos, Alcibiades
  • Nep. Ar.: Cornelius Nepos, Aristides
  • Nep. Att.: Cornelius Nepos, Atticus
  • Nep. Ca.: Cornelius Nepos, Cato
  • Nep. Cha.: Cornelius Nepos, Chabrias
  • Nep. Cim.: Cornelius Nepos, Cimon
  • Nep. Con.: Cornelius Nepos, Conon
  • Nep. Dat.: Cornelius Nepos, Datames
  • Nep. Di.: Cornelius Nepos, Dion
  • Nep. Ep.: Cornelius Nepos, Epaminondas
  • Nep. Eum.: Cornelius Nepos, Eumenes
  • Nep. Ham.: Cornelius Nepos, Hamilcar
  • Nep. Han.: Cornelius Nepos, Hannibal
  • Nep. Iph.: Cornelius Nepos, Iphicrates
  • Nep. Lys.: Cornelius Nepos, Lysander
  • Nep. Milt.: Cornelius Nepos, Miltiades
  • Nep. Paus.: Cornelius Nepos, Pausanias
  • Nep. Pel.: Cornelius Nepos, Pelopidas
  • Nep. Phoc.: Cornelius Nepos, Phocion
  • Nep. Reg.: Cornelius Nepos, Kings
  • Nep. Them.: Cornelius Nepos, Themistocles
  • Nep. Thr.: Cornelius Nepos, Thrasybulus
  • Nep. Timol.: Cornelius Nepos, Timoleon
  • Nep. Timoth.: Cornelius Nepos, Timotheus
  • Ov. Am.: Ovid, Amores
  • Ov. Ars: Ovid, Ars Amatoria
  • Ov. Ep.: Ovid, Epistulae
  • Ov. Ep. Sapph.: Ovid, Epistulae
  • Ov. Med.: Ovid, Medicamina Faciei Femineae
  • Ov. Met.: Ovid, Metamorphoses
  • Ov. Rem.: Ovid, Remedia Amoris
  • Paus.: Pausanias, Description of Greece
  • Petr.: Petronius, Satyricon
  • Petr. Fr.: Petronius, Fragments
  • Petr. Poems: Petronius, Poems
  • Phaed.: Phaedrus, Fables
  • Pind. I.: Pindar, Isthmean
  • Pind. N.: Pindar, Nemean
  • Pind. O.: Pindar, Olympian
  • Pind. P.: Pindar, Pythian
  • Pl. Am.: Plautus, Amphitruo
  • Pl. As.: Plautus, Asinaria
  • Pl. Aul.: Plautus, Aulularia
  • Pl. Bac.: Plautus, Bacchides
  • Pl. Capt.: Plautus, Captivi
  • Pl. Cas.: Plautus, Casina
  • Pl. Cist.: Plautus, Cistellaria
  • Pl. Cur.: Plautus, Curculio
  • Pl. Epid.: Plautus, Epidicus
  • Pl. Men.: Plautus, Menaechmi
  • Pl. Mer.: Plautus, Mercator
  • Pl. Mil.: Plautus, Miles Gloriosus
  • Pl. Mos.: Plautus, Mostellaria
  • Pl. Per.: Plautus, Persa
  • Pl. Poen.: Plautus, Poenulus
  • Pl. Ps.: Plautus, Pseudolus
  • Pl. Rud.: Plautus, Rudens
  • Pl. St.: Plautus, Stichus
  • Pl. Trin.: Plautus, Trinummus
  • Pl. Truc.: Plautus, Truculentus
  • Pl. Vid.: Plautus, Vidularia
  • Plat. Alc. 1: Plato, Alcibiades 1
  • Plat. Alc. 2: Plato, Alcibiades 2
  • Plat. Apol.: Plato, Apology
  • Plat. Charm.: Plato, Charmides
  • Plat. Cleit.: Plato, Cleitophon
  • Plat. Crat.: Plato, Cratylus
  • Plat. Criti.: Plato, Critias
  • Plat. Crito: Plato, Crito
  • Plat. Epin.: Plato, Epinomis
  • Plat. Euthyd.: Plato, Euthydemus
  • Plat. Euthyph.: Plato, Euthyphro
  • Plat. Gorg.: Plato, Gorgias
  • Plat. Hipp. Maj.: Plato, Greater Hippias
  • Plat. Hipp. Min.: Plato, Lesser Hippias
  • Plat. Hipparch.: Plato, Hipparchus
  • Plat. Ion: Plato, Ion
  • Plat. L.: Plato, Letters
  • Plat. Lach.: Plato, Laches
  • Plat. Laws: Plato, Laws
  • Plat. Lovers: Plato, Lovers
  • Plat. Lysis: Plato, Lysis
  • Plat. Menex.: Plato, Menexenus
  • Plat. Meno: Plato, Meno
  • Plat. Minos: Plato, Minos
  • Plat. Parm.: Plato, Parmenides
  • Plat. Phaedo: Plato, Phaedo
  • Plat. Phaedrus: Plato, Phaedrus
  • Plat. Phileb.: Plato, Philebus
  • Plat. Prot.: Plato, Protagoras
  • Plat. Rep.: Plato, Republic
  • Plat. Soph.: Plato, Sophist
  • Plat. Stat.: Plato, Statesman
  • Plat. Sym.: Plato, Symposium
  • Plat. Theaet.: Plato, Theaetetus
  • Plat. Theag.: Plato, Theages
  • Plat. Tim.: Plato, Timaeus
  • Plb.: Polybius, Histories
  • Plin. Ep.: Pliny the Younger, Epistulae
  • Plin. Nat.: Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia
  • Plut. Aem.: Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus
  • Plut. Ages.: Plutarch, Agesilaus
  • Plut. Agis: Plutarch, Agis
  • Plut. Alc.: Plutarch, Alcibiades
  • Plut. Alex.: Plutarch, Alexander
  • Plut. Ant.: Plutarch, Antonius
  • Plut. Arat.: Plutarch, Aratus
  • Plut. Arist.: Plutarch, Aristeides
  • Plut. Art.: Plutarch, Artaxerxes
  • Plut. Brut.: Plutarch, Brutus
  • Plut. CG: Plutarch, Gaius Gracchus
  • Plut. Caes.: Plutarch, Caesar
  • Plut. Cam.: Plutarch, Camillus
  • Plut. Cat. Ma.: Plutarch, Marcus Cato
  • Plut. Cat. Mi.: Plutarch, Cato Minor
  • Plut. Cic.: Plutarch, Cicero
  • Plut. Cim.: Plutarch, Cimon
  • Plut. Cleom.: Plutarch, Cleomenes
  • Plut. Comp. Ag. Gracch.: Plutarch, Comparison of Agis and Cleomenes and the Gracchi
  • Plut. Comp. Ages. Pomp.: Plutarch, Comparison of Agesilaus and Pompey
  • Plut. Comp. Alc. Cor.: Plutarch, Comparison of Alcibiades and Coriolanus
  • Plut. Comp. Aristid. Cat.: Plutarch, Comparison of Aristides with Marcus Cato
  • Plut. Comp. Cim. Luc.: Plutarch, Comparison of Lucullus and Cimon
  • Plut. Comp. Dem. Cic.: Plutarch, Comparison of Demosthenes with Cicero
  • Plut. Comp. Demetr. Ant.: Plutarch, Comparison of Demetrius and Antony
  • Plut. Comp. Dion. Brut.: Plutarch, Comparison of Dion and Brutus
  • Plut. Comp. Eum. Sert.: Plutarch, Comparison of Sertorius and Eumenes
  • Plut. Comp. Lyc. Num.: Plutarch, Comparison of Lycurgus and Numa
  • Plut. Comp. Lys. Sull.: Plutarch, Comparison of Lysander and Sulla
  • Plut. Comp. Nic. Crass.: Plutarch, Comparison of Nicias and Crassus
  • Plut. Comp. Pel. Marc.: Plutarch, Comparison of Pelopidas and Marcellus
  • Plut. Comp. Per. Fab.: Plutarch, Comparison of Pericles and Fabius Maximus
  • Plut. Comp. Phil. Flam.: Plutarch, Comparison of Philopoemen and Titus
  • Plut. Comp. Sol. Publ.: Plutarch, Comparison of Solon and Publicola
  • Plut. Comp. Thes. Rom.: Plutarch, Comparison of Theseus and Romulus
  • Plut. Comp. Tim. Aem. : Plutarch, Comparison of Timoleon and Aemilius
  • Plut. Cor.: Plutarch, Caius Marcius Coriolanus
  • Plut. Crass.: Plutarch, Crassus
  • Plut. Dem.: Plutarch, Demosthenes
  • Plut. Demetr.: Plutarch, Demetrius
  • Plut. Dio: Plutarch, Dion
  • Plut. Eum.: Plutarch, Eumenes
  • Plut. Fab.: Plutarch, Fabius Maximus
  • Plut. Flam.: Plutarch, Titus Flamininus
  • Plut. Galb.: Plutarch, Galba
  • Plut. Luc.: Plutarch, Lucullus
  • Plut. Lyc.: Plutarch, Lycurgus
  • Plut. Lys.: Plutarch, Lysander
  • Plut. Mar.: Plutarch, Caius Marius
  • Plut. Marc.: Plutarch, Marcellus
  • Plut. Nic.: Plutarch, Nicias
  • Plut. Num.: Plutarch, Numa
  • Plut. Oth.: Plutarch, Otho
  • Plut. Pel.: Plutarch, Pelopidas
  • Plut. Per.: Plutarch, Pericles
  • Plut. Phil.: Plutarch, Philopoemen
  • Plut. Phoc.: Plutarch, Phocion
  • Plut. Pomp.: Plutarch, Pompey
  • Plut. Publ.: Plutarch, Publicola
  • Plut. Pyrrh.: Plutarch, Pyrrhus
  • Plut. Rom.: Plutarch, Romulus
  • Plut. Sert.: Plutarch, Sertorius
  • Plut. Sol.: Plutarch, Solon
  • Plut. Sull.: Plutarch, Sulla
  • Plut. TG: Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus
  • Plut. Them.: Plutarch, Themistocles
  • Plut. Thes.: Plutarch, Theseus
  • Plut. Tim.: Plutarch, Timoleon
  • Prop.: Sextus Propertius, Elegies
  • Ps. Xen. Const. Ath.: Old Oligarch, Constitution of the Athenians
  • Quint. Inst. 1: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 1
  • Quint. Inst. 10: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 10
  • Quint. Inst. 11: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 11
  • Quint. Inst. 12: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 12
  • Quint. Inst. 2: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 2
  • Quint. Inst. 3: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 3
  • Quint. Inst. 4: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 4
  • Quint. Inst. 5: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 5
  • Quint. Inst. 6: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 6
  • Quint. Inst. 7: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 7
  • Quint. Inst. 8: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 8
  • Quint. Inst. 9: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 9
  • Quint. Inst. Pref.: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Preface
  • Sal. Cat.: Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio
  • Sal. Hist.: Sallust, Historiae
  • Sal. Jug.: Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum
  • Sen. Ag.: Seneca, Agamemnon
  • Sen. Apoc.: Seneca, Apocolocyntosis
  • Sen. Ben.: Seneca, de Beneficiis
  • Sen. Brev. Vit.: Seneca, de Brevitate Vitae
  • Sen. Cl.: Seneca, de Clementia
  • Sen. Cons. Helv.: Seneca, de consolatione ad Helviam
  • Sen. Cons. Marc.: Seneca, de consolatione ad Marciam
  • Sen. Cons. Polyb.: Seneca, de consolatione ad Polybium
  • Sen. Cons. Sap.: Seneca, de Constantia
  • Sen. Const.: Seneca, de Constantia
  • Sen. Ep.: Seneca, Epistulae
  • Sen. Her. F.: Seneca, Hercules Furens
  • Sen. Her. O.: Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus
  • Sen. Ira: Seneca, de Ira
  • Sen. Med.: Seneca, Medea
  • Sen. Oct.: Seneca, Octavia
  • Sen. Oed.: Seneca, Oedipus
  • Sen. Ot. Sap.: Seneca, de Otio Sapientis
  • Sen. Phaed.: Seneca, Phaedra
  • Sen. Phoen.: Seneca, Phoenissae
  • Sen. Prov.: Seneca, de Providentia
  • Sen. Thy.: Seneca, Thyestes
  • Sen. Tranq.: Seneca, de Tranquilitate Animi
  • Sen. Tro.: Seneca, Troades
  • Sen. Vit. Beat.: Seneca, de Vita Beata
  • Serv. A.: Servius, Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil
  • Soph. Aj.: Sophocles, Ajax
  • Soph. Ant.: Sophocles, Antigone
  • Soph. El.: Sophocles, Electra
  • Soph. Ich.: Sophocles, Ichneutae
  • Soph. OC: Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus
  • Soph. OT: Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus
  • Soph. Phil.: Sophocles, Philoctetes
  • Soph. Trach.: Sophocles, Trachiniae
  • Strab.: Strabo, Geography
  • Suet. Aug.: Suetonius, Divus Augustus
  • Suet. Cal.: Suetonius, Caligula
  • Suet. Cl.: Suetonius, Divus Claudius
  • Suet. Dom.: Suetonius, Domitianus
  • Suet. Gal.: Suetonius, Galba
  • Suet. Jul.: Suetonius, Divus Julius
  • Suet. Nero: Suetonius, Nero
  • Suet. Otho: Suetonius, Otho
  • Suet. Tib.: Suetonius, Tiberius
  • Suet. Tit.: Suetonius, Divus Titus
  • Suet. Ves.: Suetonius, Divus Vespasianus
  • Suet. Vit.: Suetonius, Vitellius
  • Sulpicia: Sulpicia, Poems
  • Tac. Ag.: Tacitus, Agricola
  • Tac. Ann.: Tacitus, Annales
  • Tac. Dial.: Tacitus, Dialogus
  • Tac. Ger.: Tacitus, Germania
  • Tac. Hist.: Tacitus, Historiae
  • Ter. Ad.: Terence, The Brothers
  • Ter. An.: Terence, Andria
  • Ter. Eu.: Terence, The Eunuch
  • Ter. Hau.: Terence, The Self-Tormenter
  • Ter. Hec.: Terence, The Mother-in-Law
  • Ter. Ph.: Terence, Phormio
  • Theoc.: Theocritus, Idylls
  • Theoc. Ep.: Theocritus, Epigrams
  • Theoc. Id.: Theocritus, Idylls
  • Thphr. Char.: Theophrastus, Characters
  • Thuc.: Thucydides, Histories
  • V. Fl.: C. Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica
  • Verg. A.: Vergil, Aeneid
  • Verg. Ecl.: Vergil, Eclogues
  • Verg. G.: Vergil, Georgics
  • Vitr.: Vitruvius, On Architecture
  • Xen. Ages.: Xenophon, Agesilaus
  • Xen. Anab.: Xenophon, Anabasis
  • Xen. Apol.: Xenophon, Apology
  • Xen. Cav.: Xenophon, On the Cavalry Commander
  • Xen. Const. Lac.: Xenophon, Constitution of the Lacedaimonians
  • Xen. Cyrop.: Xenophon, Cyropaedia
  • Xen. Ec.: Xenophon, Economics
  • Xen. Hell.: Xenophon, Hellenica
  • Xen. Hiero: Xenophon, Hiero
  • Xen. Horse.: Xenophon, On the Art of Horsemanship
  • Xen. Hunt.: Xenophon, On Hunting
  • Xen. Mem.: Xenophon, Memorabilia
  • Xen. Sym.: Xenophon, Symposium
  • Xen. Ways: Xenophon, Ways and Means

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