Definition: Campania was an area of southern Italy located southeast of Rome. It was a part of Magna Graecia [see map of southern Italy]. In Campania were Capua, Neapolis (Naples), Cumae, Baiae, Herculaneum, Pompeii, Caudium, Salernum, Casilínum, and Nola. The famous volcano of Mt. Vesuvius was here, and also Lake Avernus.