1. Education

Latin 3rd Conjugation Verb Paradigm

How to Conjugate Regular 3rd Conjugation Latin Verbs

By

Third conjugation verbs end in -ere in the infinitive (the second principal part).

In the third conjugation, a three-syllable infinitive stresses the first syllable. Our model Latin third conjugation verb below is gero, so its second principal part would be pronounced GE'reh-reh, where the "g" is hard, as in "get". [See Latin Discussion.]

Distinguishing 3rd Conjugation Verbs From Other Conjugations

Like the third declension, the third conjugation seems to have more than its share of different types, since it actually has a subtype, the -io verbs. It may also seem hard to distinguish verbs of the third conjugation from other conjugations. If this is something you have problems with, please read the following; otherwise, skip to the paradigm.

The other conjugation with an -ere as the second principal part is actually different because it has a long -e that you may see marked with a macron (). The second conjugation syllable with a long -e is stressed. If you see the complete paradigm, you can tell a second from a third conjugation because the future has a -b-, just like the imperfect. Third conjugation verbs do not have a "-b-" in the future. You need to pay attention to the differences between the future indicative and the present subjunctive. [For the difference between subjunctive and indicative, see Latin Verb Moods. For the differences among the tenses (present, past, future, etc.), see Latin Verb Tenses.]

If you want to know whether a verb is in the third conjugation, you can look at the first two principal parts. The conjugations in the running are the second and fourth, but the first principal part distinguishes the second conjugation from the third, and the second principal part distinguishes the fourth conjugation from the third conjugation -io subtype of verbs.

Endings for the four Latin conjugations shown with macrons:

1st: -o, -āre | 2nd: -eo, -ēre | 3rd: -o, -ere / -io, -ere | 4th: -io, īre

The Paradigm of Gero With Notes

Principal parts for the 3rd conjugation verb gerere, to manage

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus.
Infinitives

Active Voice

Present - gerere

Perfect - gessisse

Future - gesturus esse

Passive Voice

See conjugation of sum for use with the passive.
Present -geri

Perfect - gestus esse

Future - gestum iri


Participles

Active

Present - gerens

Future - gesturus

Passive Voice

Perfect - gestus

Future - gerendus

INDICATIVE MOOD

Active Voice

Present Tense Active Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gero gerimus
2 geris geritis
3 gerit gerunt

Imperfect Tense Active Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gerebam gerebamus
2 gerebas gerebatis
3 gerebat gerebant

Future Tense Active Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 geram geremus
2 geres geretis
3 geret gerent

Perfect Tense Active Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gessi gessimus
2 gessisti gessistis
3 gessit gesserunt

Pluperfect Tense Active Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gesseram gesseramus
2 gesseras gesseratis
3 gesserat gesserant

Future Perfect Tense Active Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gessero gesserimus
2 gesseris gesseritis
3 gesserit gesserint

Passive Voice

Present Tense Passive Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 geror gerimur
2 gereris gerimini
3 geritur geruntur

Imperfect Tense Passive Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gerebar gerebamur
2 gerebaris gerebamini
3 gerebatur gerebantur

Future Tense Passive Voice Indicative Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gerar geremur
2 gereris geremini
3 geretur gerentur

(The perfect tense is a tense showing completed action. That is the meaning of "perfect" in terms of tenses. Imperfect means incomplete. A future perfect is an action that will have been completed at some point in the future.)

Perfect - gestus sum etc.
Pluperfect - gestus eram etc.
Future Perfect -gestus ero etc.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Active Voice

Present Tense Active Voice Subjunctive Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 geram geramus
2 geras geratis
3 gerat gerant

Imperfect Tense Active Voice Subjunctive Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gererem gereremus
2 gereres gereretis
3 gereret gererent

Perfect Tense Active Voice Subjunctive Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gesserim gesserimus
2 gesseris gesseritis
3 gesserit gesserint

Pluperfect Tense Active Voice Subjunctive Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gessissem gessissemus
2 gessisses gessissetis
3 gessisset gessissent

Passive Voice

Present Tense Passive Voice Subjunctive Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gerar geramur
2 geraris geramini
3 geratur gerantur

Imperfect Tense Passive Voice Subjunctive Mood

Person SINGULAR PLURAL
1 gererer gereremur
2 gerereris gereremini
3 gereretur gererentur

Perfect Tense Passive Voice Subjunctive Mood - gestus sim
Pluperfect Tense Passive Voice Subjunctive Mood - gestus essem

Imperative Mood
Active Voice

  • Present Tense

2d person - gere gerite

  • Future Tense

2d person -gerito geritote
3d person - gerito gerunto

Passive Voice

  • Present Tense

2d person - gerere gerimini

  • Future Tense

2d person - geritor
3d person - geritor geruntor

©2014 About.com. All rights reserved.