Reconstruction of a globe built in 150 BC at Pergamum. The oikumene is the inhabited part of the world. Because the known inhabited area seemed too small in proportion to the globe according to Eratosthenes' measurements, Crates added three additional continents.
Eratosthenes' Map of the World
A modern vision of what Eratosthenes (c. 220 BC) would have thought the world was like. Details include the Scythians, Celts, Ethiopians, India, Ariana, Britain and Thule. Also see a slightly different map showing the same area.
Orbis Terrarum 20 AD
Circular map reconstruction showing Europa, Africa, and Asia.
World Map according to Strabo
reconstruction of Strabo's 18 AD world view. Despite the broadening of the geographic horizons from the geography of Eratosthenes, Strabo's inhabited area, oikumene, is smaller. Strabo believed Pytheas had misled people with wild stories of people living in the far north (beyond Ireland).