This map shows medieval lines of commerce. For those interested in commerce in antiquity, this map show areas along the silk road. The Chinese controlled the area westward to the Tarim basin (section Ic-d). The next kingdom heading east to west was the area of the Kushans, in the northern area of modern India and Pakistan. The Kushan center was at Kashmir. Next going west came the Parthians, a stage of the Persian Empire. The last area of the Silk Road headed west as shown on this map contained the Asian provinces of the Roman Empire.