In about 1100 B.C., according to the ancient Greeks, a group of men from the North, who spoke Greek, invaded the Peloponnese. There could have been such an invasion, in which case it might explain the loss of the Mycenaean civilization, but we just don't have the evidence. The end of Mycenaean civilization led to a Dark Age about which we know very little except from archaeology. It was the period in which the harder and cheaper metal iron replaced bronze as a material for weapons and farm implements. [See Iron Age
.] The Dark Age ended when the Archaic Age began, in the 8th century.
The Dorian Invasion is connected with the return of the sons of Hercules (Heracles), who are known as the Heracleidae.
The people of Athens were not forced to migrate during this unsettled period, which put them in a unique position among the Greeks.
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