Basic information on the land between two rivers and statistics.
- Iraq War on Ancient Artifacts
A look at what we are doing to prevent the destruction of 7000 year old artifacts during war.
- The Persian Wars
The Persian Empire tried to expand to include Greece.
The People of Mesopotamia
- Achaemids - Medes
An introduction to ancient Assyria.
An introduction to ancient Babylonia.
Resources on Cyrus, a Persian king who conquered Babylon in 539 B.C.
- Dilmun (Bahrain)
Information on an ancient trading center that was probably modern Bahrain.
- Epic of Gilgamesh
The story of a legendary king of Uruk in Babylonia.
- Hammurabi - Babylonia
Information on the Babylonian king known for his law code.
Information on the early years of what is now Iraq.
- Lebanon - Phoenicians
Tyre is in Lebanon and was one of the areas in which the ancient Phoenicians lived.
- Nebuchadnezzar - Babylonia
Information on the Chaldean king known for his hanging gardens.
Introduction to ancient Persia, the Medes, and Cyrus.
Information on the ancient country now known as Qatar -- the home of the Arab news service Al Jazeera.
- Sargon the Great
Ancient king of Akkad and father of the first named author.
- Saudi Arabia
In ancient times Saudi Arabia profited from agriculture and trade in many items, including frankincense and myrrh.
An introduction to ancient Sumer and the Sumerians.
Information on the ancient area now known as Syria.
- Turkey - Anatolia
Ancient residents of this area included Hittites, Kurds, Phrygians, and Lydians.
- Xerxes, Darius, Cyrus, Ashurbanipal, Tiglath Pileser, Sennacherib, Nebuchadnezzar, Sargon II and Ashurbanipal
Reigns, events, dates and major contributions of major Near Eastern monarchs.
Mesopotamia - Chronology
Broad time categories for Mesopotamian History.
- Timelines - Mesopotamia
- 4000-1000 BC 5000-1595 BC Sumer Timeline
Contributions to Civilization
- Whose Culture?
A look at the long association between humans and beer.
- Calendars - Babylonian
The months and structure of the calendar the Babylonians used.
- Cuneiform Writing
Basic information on this Mesopotamian type of writing.
- Language, Writing, and Literature
Resources on the languages of the region, learning them, and the literature produced.
- Race To Be First - Writing
Mesopotamia is only one of the possible locations for the first writing system.
- Law - Legal Documents
Resources on inscriptions and translated documents about law in the Near East and Middle East.
Information on the Babylonian system of counting.
- Science, Math, and Technology
Resources on Near and Middle Eastern contributions to science, plumbing, mathematics, and other technologies.
Information on this type of monument.
Information on this type of stepped temple.
Mesopotamia - Religion
- Sumerian Gods and Goddesses
Information about the major Sumerian gods and goddesses.
- Ancient Near and Middle East Religion and Mythology
Speculation on how early people in Mesopotamia came to develop religion with information on the principal gods and goddesses.
Principal ancient classical historians who wrote about the ancient Arabs:
Herodotus: The Histories, c. 430 B.C.
Strabo: Geography, c. A.D. 22
Dio Cassius: History of Rome, c. A.D. 220
Ammianus Marcellinus: The Roman History, c. A.D. 380
Procopius of Caesarea: History of the Wars, c. A.D. 550