Babylon was an ancient city in Mesopotamia. It was the capital city of Babylonia from the second to first millennium B.C., and then of the Chaldean Empire in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. Its ruins lie about 55 miles south of Baghdad on the Euphrates River, in Iraq.
Hammurabi (18th C. B.C.) made Babylon the capital city of his kingdom. Nebuchadnezzar, centuries later, also made his capital in Babylon and rebuilt the city. Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon was the largest city of the time. In it was a temple of Marduk and ziggurat, the Tower of Babel. In 331 B.C. Babylon surrendered to Alexander the Great. After Alexander's death, Babylon fell into the hands of the Seleucids.
Babylon was a commercial, administrative, literary, and religious center. The chief god of Babylon, Marduk, became supreme Mesopotamian god.