Context:A battle in the Persian Wars (499-449 B.C.)
Probable Date:August or September 12 490 B.C.
- Winners: Maybe 10,000 Greeks (Athens and Plataeans) under Callimachus and Miltiades
- Losers: Maybe 25,000 Persians under Datis and Ataphernes
When Greek colonists set out from mainland Greece, many wound up in Ionia, in Asia Minor. In 546, the Persians took over Ionia. Ionian Greeks found the Persian rule oppressive and attempted to revolt with the aid of the mainland Greeks. Mainland Greece then came to the attention of the Persians, and war between them ensued.
The Persian Wars lasted from 492 - 449 B.C. and include the Battle of Marathon. In 490 B.C. (possibly on August or September 12), perhaps 25,000 Persians, under King Darius' generals, landed on the Greek Plain of Marathon.
The Spartans were unwilling to provide timely help for the Athenians, so Athens' army, which was about 1/3 the size of the Persian's, supplemented by 1,000 Plataeans, and led by Callimachus (polemarch) and Miltiades (former tyrant in the Chersonesus [Map section Ja]), fought the Persians. The Greeks won by encircling the Persian forces.
This was a momentous event since it was the first Greek victory in the Persian Wars. Then the Greeks prevented a surprise Persian attack on Athens by a quick march back to the city to warn the inhabitants.
Origin of the Racing Term Marathon:Supposedly, a messenger (Pheidippides) ran about 25 miles, from Marathon to Athens, to announce the defeat of the Persians. At the end of the march he died of exhaustion.
Print Sources on the Battle of Marathon
The Battle of Marathon: Battles of the Ancient World, by Don Nardo
The Greco-Persian Wars, by Peter Green
The Battle of Marathon, by Peter Krentz
Online Battle of Marathon Resources:
wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/PERSIAN.HTM World Civilizations - Ancient Greece - The Persian Wars
Darius of PersiaDarius [Darayavaush] was the third king of Persia, following Cyrus and Cambyses. He ruled from 521-485 B.C. Darius was the son of Hystaspes.
Peter Green says that Persian nobles called Darius "the huckster" because of his skill and interest in commerce. He standardized weights and measures. He controlled sea trade through the Dardanelles and the grain in the two major areas from which Greece might have imported -- South Russia and Egypt. Darius "dug a forerunner of the modern Suez Canal, 150 feet wide, and deep enough to carry large merchantmen" and sent a sea captain to "explore the sea-route to India" through the Persian Gulf.
Green also says Darius adapted the Babylonian law code, improved communication in his provinces, and reorganized the satrapies. [p. 13f]