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Phoenicians - Carthage

The Phoenicians. The Phoenicians were traders who settled in Carthage in North Africa There the Phoenicians established an empire, came into conflict with the budding imperial power of Rome and fought three Punic Wars.

What Does Punic Mean?
An explanation of the term "Punic."

What Is Phoenician?
Phoenician is an adjective based on a Greek word used to describe a group a language and people from Canaan.

Phoenician Traits According to Greeks and Romans
Benjamin Isaac, in "The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity" lists the terms used by Greeks and Romans when describing the Phoenicians.

Founding of Carthage
Information on the founding of Carthage.

Religion in Carthage
Roy Decker looks at the religion of the Phoenicians, including the practice of child sacrifice.

Was Hannibal Black?
Hannibal was a Phoenician, but do we have evidence that he was black-skinned?

Bibliography of 434 articles, books, and other works on the Phoenicians, of which some are in English.

Concise history of Carthage, with limited timeline, from the Encyclopaedia of the Orient.

Constitution of Carthage
Aristotle (c. 340 B.C.) compares Carthaginian oligarchy with Spartan. Aristotle claims accident keeps the populous loyal.

Brief entry on Hasdrubal, from the Encyclopaedia of the Orient.

Livy XXI
Livy's description of the war with Hannibal.

Legenda Didonis martiris, Cartaginis regine
Legend of Dido, in Middle English.

Missionaries of Civilization
A large site on almost every aspect of the Phoenicians, their origins, law, language, commerce, religion, literature, music and more.

Phoenician Archaeology
Examination of photographs of the Melitensia Quinta reveals that sometime between its discovery (c. 1855) and 1874 the plate (commemorating the construction of temples by the people of Gozo) was scraped.

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