179 B.C. - Treaty Between Spain and Rome
Tib. Sempronius Gracchus in B.C. had established a treaty with Spain. According to it, the towns involved were to pay Rome a tribute and contribute soldiers. They were not allowed to rebuild their walls, although this stipulation had not been built into the treaty.
153 - Nobilior's Unsuccessful Campaigns in Spain
When the Celtiberian town of Segeda refused to pay tribute and began building walls, it violated the treaty of Sempronius Gracchus. Praetor Q. Fabius Nobilior with 30,000 troops, waged an unsuccessful campaign against them suffering a significant defeat on August 23. The Romans lost 6000. The Roman cavalry later killed Carus, leader of the Segedans and their Arevaci allies. Nobilior continued to fight, aided by Masinissa's* elephants. The elephants became excited and started killing Romans. The Romans fled and the Celtiberians pursued them. The Greek historian of Rome Appian says 4000 Romans and 2000 Celtiberians were killed.
152 - Marcellus Makes a Treaty With Spanish Tribes
Nobilior was succeeded by Consul M. Claudius Marcellus with 8000 infantry and 500 horse soldiers. He arranged a treaty with the Belli, the Titthi, and the Arevaci in Numantia.
- 151 - Lucullus and Galba's Double Approach to Spain
150 - Lucullus and Galba's Attrocities
Lucullus and Galba invaded Lusitania, which was at the time autonomous, from the north and south. Lusitania submitted to Lucullus who, with Galba, butchered the Lusitanians. Few escaped, but one who did was Viriathus who would get some revenge for his people. Rome tried Galba for his part, but he was acquitted; nothing was done to Lucullus.
145 - Numantine War
Viriathus waged guerilla campaigns in the mountains and gathered followers so successfully that Rome sent Consul Q. Fabius Maximus to Spain in 145. Fabius defeated Viriathus, but the Celtiberians, under the leadership of the Arevaci, revolted. This was the Numantine War from Numantia on the River Douro,
Rome now sent an army to the north to fight the Celtiberians and one to the south to fight Viriathus and the Lusitanians.
141 - Viriathus Defeats the Romans
Viriathus surprised Proconsul Fabius Servilianus in a narrow pass. The Romans were defeated, but allowed to leave on two conditions:
- that Lusitania be allowed to retain its territory
- that Viriathus be recognized as a friend and ally of Rome.
The treaty was ratified.
139 - Caepio Breaks the Treaty
The treaty was broken when Consul Q. Servilius Caepio, who followed the proconsul in the command of southern Spain found a pretext to do so. When Viriathus sent envoys to arrange for new terms, Caepio persuaded the envoys to kill Viriathus. Caepio reneged on his promise of rewards to the assassins.
138 - Brutus Subdues the Lusitanians
Without Viriathus, the Lusitanians were subdued, by Consul D. Junius Brutus, who also received the submission of a people from northwest Spain known as Callaici or Gallaeci.
137 - Treaty Troubles
Consul Q. Metellus Macedonicus was successful against the Celtiberians, but his successors were not. Thus, in 137 Consul C. Hostilius Mancinus signed a peace treaty with the Celtiberians recognizing their independence. Properly suspicious of the way Romans carried out their treaties, the Celtiberians made the condition that Quaestor Tib. Sempronius Gracchus be responsible for the execution of the treaty. The Roman Senate refused the terms.
134 - Scipio and the Beginning of the End
Scipio Africanus was brought in as consul, with Marius and the Numidian prince Jugurtha under him.
133 - Scipio Razes Numantia
Scipio besieged Numantia. When they succumbed to famine and cannibalism, they surrendered becoming part of Scipio's triumph or sold as slaves. Numantinus was razed.
Also see Polybius XXXV
*Masinissa = Massinissa