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12/23/10 [CW] The Religion of Ugaritic Texts May Have Influenced Abraham

12/22/10 [Glossary]

12/20/20 [Glossary]
Jerusalem Aetna Thessaly Potidaea

Your Favorite Underworld Myth?
Post your favorite and why.

Roman Terms Quiz

Ancient Aegean Maps

Roman Terms for Students

List of Roman Terms for Beginners

Ancient Egyptian Terms for Children to Know

Pyramids [Glossary]

List of Ancient Egyptian Geographic Terms
List of Ancient Egyptian Terms for Beginners

Octavius/Augustus [Glossary]
Emperor Chin [Glossary]

Greek Underworld Myths

Aristotle (Aristotle Quotes)
Epictetus (Epictetus Quotes)

12/15/10 - Stoic Philosophers
A list of some of the major writers who wrote as Stoics.

The Vulgate
Editio Vulgata
Musonius Rufus

12/14/10 Glossary

12/13/10 - [CW] Biblical Measurements

Iliad Quotes

Some philosophical quotes from Homer's Iliad. Odyssey Quotes.

How Do You Honor the History of Hanukkah?
The treats are well and good, but what do you do to honor the history behind Hanukkah?

Demetrius of Phalerum (Quotes)

12/09/10 - How Do You Pick a Bible Translation?
How do you do it? Post here.

12/07/10 - Glossary
12 Lucius Junius Brutus
1st Council of Ephesus

12/06/10 - Fall of Rome Timeline

12/05/10 - Silk Road Artifacts
Picture gallery showing artifacts from a Silk Road tour.

Ancient Greek Meals

The names and approximate times of the meals eaten by the ancient Greeks. Also see Ancient Greek Foods.

Glossary entry on this Greek meal.

Roots of Historic Hanukkah

CW Cynthia Astle tells the real story behind the holiday.


Glossary entry on the Latin term for ally.

Ancient Roman Meals
About the names and times of the ancient Roman meals.

Roman International Relations Terms
Latin terms specifying relationships between foreign polities and ancient Rome.

Client Kings


The Story of Moses
The story of Moses includes an heroic birth, the Exodus, the 10 Plagues, and the 10 Commandments.


[CW] Jews in Jesus' Time

[CW] History in the Gospels

Gallery of Pompeii Photos
Collections of photos on various topics dealing with Pompeii.

Baths of Pompeii
Pictures of the baths at Pompeii.

11/25/10 - Sources for Roman Food
If you want to learn about the eating of the Romans, you can practically pick up any book written by the Romans, or you can look at the works of these writers who focused on the topic.


Glossary entry on Oikumene.

[CW] Did Joseph, Foster Father of Jesus, Really Exist?
Contributing writer Cynthia Astle looks at the James Ossuary to see how it contributes to whether we know if Joseph really lived.

11/23/10 - [CW] Why Are There Problems Choosing Bible Translations?
CW Cynthia Astle looks at the problems of Biblical translation.

11/22/10 - [CW] Recommended Bible Translations for Historical Study
It's hard to know which translation of the Bible to pick, so contributing writer Cynthia Astle gives you some guidance.

11/20/10 - Evocatio
Glossary entry (religion).

11/19/10 - Interpretatio Romana
Glossary entry (religion).

11/15/10 - Boiotia
Glossary entry on this Greek area near Attica.

11/14/10 - Onomasticon
Glossary entry on this name word.

11/14/10 - Religions of Ancient India
The 3 main religions of ancient religion that have survived to this day.

11/14/10 - Did Hercules Found Italy?
If that question surprises you or if you think the answer is yes, please read this short FAQ.

11/13/10 - Kvasir
Story of Kvasir as told by Snorri Sturleson.

11/11/10 - Athenian Privy
Yes, it is yet another toilet picture from the ancient world.

11/09/10 - Damon and Pythias
Read about this ancient tale of friendship.

While on the topic of moralistic tales, I have created a few new organizational pages of interest:

11/07/10 - Boreas
Glossary entry on the Greek mythological figure Boreas.

11/06/10 - Hyperborea
Glossary entry on the mythological place thought to mean beyond Boreas.

11/06/10 - Ancient Greek Potty
A photo of an ancient Greek potty training chair. Also see Roman Latrine.

11/02/10 - Roman Priests
Learn about major types of Roman priests during the Roman Republic.

11/01/10 - Review - Landmark Arrian - Campaigns of Alexander
A review of the Landmark edition of Arrian's account of the career of Alexander the Great.

11/01/02 - Priscus
Glossary entry on this late, Byzantine historian.


10/31/10 - Did the Romans Believe Their Myths?
Charles King shows how we can overcome looking at Roman religion from Judaeo-Christian perspectives.

10/30/10 - Review - King of Kings
Read this short review of the second volume in Harry Sidebottom's Warrior of Rome series to help decide whether you want to read it for yourself.

10/29/10 - Bellerophon
Read about Bellerophon's adventures and fall from grace.

10/29/10 - Cadmus
Unlike most heroes, Cadmus lacked divine parentage, but he was still sent on a quest and founded an important city.

10/29/10 - Artemis
A photo of a lovely piece of art by a Roman imitator of Praxiteles.

10/29/10 - Europa
Part of the cow-bull myths involving both Crete and Zeus, Europa was an abducted king's daughter.

10/29/10 - Which Ancient Conqueror Are You?
A just-for-fun quiz to determine which of the ancient conquerors you're most like. Contains a scattering of modern, international cultural references you may have to Google. Questions asked may or may not represent real aspects of the conquerors' lives.

10/28/10 - A Little Etymology
Do you recognize the title? It's about word parts, written especially for medical students.

10/24/10 - Rama and Sita
An annotated bibliography of articles on Rama and Sita in connection with the fall festival of Diwali.

10/22/10 - Holidays and Festivals
Holidays today tend to be fun, colorful events where people use or wear special items, bestow gifts, and observe time-honored rituals that may make sense to participants. Ancient holidays also served religious and community-building purposes.

10/22/10 - Diwali
Diwali is a Hindu equinox "festival of lights" celebrated at the new moon in the month of Kartika, around the time of the autumn harvest and the start of the winter sowing.

10/22/10 - Bellona
Glossary entry on Bellona, a Roman goddess of war.

10/22/10 - The Julius Caesar Play
A revised article. A look at why it was selected to be performed at a special celebration at the Globe Theater.

10/21/10 - Caesar's Gallic Wars Commentaries
Julius Caesar wrote about his conquest of Gaul in a work called De Bello Gallico or Caesar's Gallic Wars. Follow the links on this, the 1st book. You'll also find links to an English translation.

10/16/10 - What Is Meant by Persecution of Christians?
This answer only refers to the early period of Christianity. It looks briefly at the conflict between ordinary Roman and Christian.

10/16/10 - Moses' 10 Plagues
An FAQ on the involvement of Moses in the 10 Plagues in Egypt.

10/15/10 - Athena's Symbols
Gods had symbols and attributes by which they were known. Here are Athena's.

10/10/10 - Ancient Greek Personal Names
Basic information on the formation of ancient Greek personal names.

10/10/10 - Victory Wreaths
A list of the Panhellenic games and the wreaths awarded the victors, plus passages from ancient writers about the wreaths.

10/08/10 - Alexander the Great Quizzes
A fairly easy one and a tough one, both suitable for printing out.

10/05/10 - Roman Funeral Vocabulary
Mostly Latin words for the ceremonies involved in Roman funerals.

10/05/10 - Why We Put Flowers on Graves
Based on an article from the 1930s, here's an explanation for the carefully tended lawns in which we find graves garlanded with fresh flowers.

10/05/10 - Mundus Patet
In ancient Rome this would have been one of the three days known as Mundus Patet. Find out what happened on those days.

10/04/10 - Review: Alexander the Great and His Empire, by Pierre Briant
A short book on the career of Alexander the Great that was originally written in French in 1974 and translated and revised in 2010.

10/03/10 - Odes Book I of Horace
Horace's Odes in public domain English verse translations, with pictures illustrating themes from each of the odes.


09/30/10 - What Are the Names of the Rivers of Hades?
A list of the 5 rivers of Hades.

09/30/10 - Kings of Sparta
A list of the pairs of kings of Sparta.

09/28/10 - Herodes Atticus Odeon Glossary Entry
About the most magnificent, little odeon-style theater in the Roman Empire.

09/27/10 - Magister Officiorum Glossary Entry
Explanation of a high ranking imperial civil servant.

09/25/10 - Review: Antony and Cleopatra, by Adrian Goldsworthy
Goldsworthy's Antony and Cleopatra is worth reading by people interested in the period between the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire because it actually presents information that isn't readily available. For people who enjoy the romantic myth of Antony and Cleopatra, this may be a bit disillusioning.

09/24/10 - Review: The Pericles Commission, by Gary Corby
This book introduces the style of historical mystery fiction mastered by Roman historical fiction writers Lindsey Davis and David Wishart to ancient Greece.

09/22/10 - Ephialtes
A brief look at the murder of and what else we don't know about the demagogue and reformer Ephialtes of Athens.

09/21/10 - Review: Penelope's Daughter
Not quite historical or alternative historical fiction because the base story isn't history but myth, this is a well-written modern novel set in a well-researched and detailed ancient Ithaca and Sparta. I'm not really familiar with modern genres, but I think this might be historical chick lit.

09/17/10 - The Parthian Empire
A profile of the Parthian Empire.

09/16/10 - Troad
Definition of Troad or Troas, a name for the area of northwestern Anatolia opposite Thrace that included the city of Troy.

09/16/10 - Review: The Roman Invasion of Britain
A made for television DVD, with Betthany Hughes as presenter.

09/15/10 - Timeline of Major Intervals
This is a very general timeline showing which civilizations were prominent at which period of ancient history. It covers Eurasia, primarily, plus Egypt.

09/14/10 - Guess Who Gallery
A review of the past year's Guess Who pictures.

09/10/10 - Review: Cicero A Legamus
A new tool for intermediate Latin students from Bolchazy-Carducci to help them make the transition to the actual Latin text.

09/08/10 - Letter to Atticus
This letter from Cicero to Atticus mentions Cicero's hatred for Queen Cleopatra. Here you can read a public domain English translation and the Latin.

09/07/10 - Uranus' Revenge
An updated article on the revenge Uranus indirectly took on his son Cronus.

09/05/10 - The Ancient Calendar
An updated basic article on calendars in antiquity.

09/02/10 - Why Does Rome Dominate Ancient/Classical History?
A look at the rationale behind the apparent dominance of Rome on this site.

09/01/10 - Polysyndeton
A definition of a rhetorical term.


08/27/10 - Review of Saylor's Empire
While Steven Saylor is one of my favorite historical fiction writers, I don't love all of his novels equally. This one is high on the list: Empire is full of history, blood and gore, surprise, lore, sexuality, and fascinating real and imagined characters.

08/26/10 - Persia Timeline
Major events in the history of ancient Persia to the conquest by the Muslims.

08/26/10 - Cyrus
Information about the birth and family of Cyrus the Great of Persia.

08/25/10 - Who Are the Lotus Eaters
The Lotus Eaters appear in the 9th book of the Odyssey. They are the inhabitants of one of the dangerous islands on which Odysseus' men stopped. Do you know what made the island dangerous?

08/25/10 - Corbridge Lanx
An exquisite silver platter at the British Museum thought to have been created in the 4th century A.D. perhaps to commemorate a trip by Julian the Apostate to Apollo's shrine in Delos.

08/21/10 - Leto
Glossary entry on the mother of the divine pair of archers, Artemis and Apollo.

08/18/10 - Axones
Glossary entry on the items on which Solon's law codes were written.

08/15/10 - The Lightning Thief Greek Mythological References
A list of the mythological references and allusions (with links for more info) from the first of Rick Riordan's immensely popular series.

08/10/10 - Review: "De Bonis Cogitationibus," by Rose Williams
If you're homeschooling Latin, this may a supplement to use.

08/09/10 - What Is the Etymology of Italia (Italy)?
There are a few theories, but not a conclusive answer.

08/05/10 - Julia Maesa
Glossary entry on one of the Severan Julias.

08/04/10 - Places in the Iliad
A list of more than 300 places named in the Iliad.


10/27/10 - Ancient Greece in Pictures
Picture Gallery for ancient Greece with links to specialized galleries on a variety of ancient Greek topics.

10/27/10 - Latin Abbreviations
A.D. vs. C.E.

07/26/10 - Gods and Goddesses in the Iliad
A list of the gods, goddesses, rivers, winds, and personifications in the Iliad.

07/22/10 - Tiberius Timeline
Chronology of events in the life of Tiberius leading to his becoming emperor and his years as emperor.

07/20/10 - The Beginning of the Ionian Revolt
Suggested causes of the Ionian revolt include Aristagoras' fear of reprisals for the expedition against Naxos.

07/14/10 - Roman Arches
Pictures of famous surviving Roman arches.

07/12/10 - Review of AD 410 The Year That Shook Rome, by Sam Moorhead and David Stuttard
A museum quality book that describes the sack of Rome in A.D. 410 with the skills of an historian and a talented story-teller.
The book itself has some quirks that should present no problem for most readers: The authors refer to the book as AD 410, but the title is printed as AD410, without the space, so if you have trouble finding it, try the other spacing. The lovely pages are left aligned, rather than justified, which sometimes results in the appearance of incomplete sentences, but it's easy enough to get used to. The final quirk is one that was brought to my attention by someone who files books, and may bother librarians: the binding is upside down.

07/15/10 - Hellenistic Greece Timeline
A Greek timeline of events from the death of Alexander the Great.

07/15/10 - Classical Greece Timeline
A Greek timeline of events from the Persian Wars to the death of Alexander the Great.

07/15/10 - Era-by-Era Greek Timeline
A look at Greek history dividing it into periods that come from terms used for Greek pottery.

07/12/10 - Basilica
Glossary entry on the Roman basilica, which turned into the familiar Christian building.

07/10/10 - Pre- Exile Judaism
In Household and Family Religion in Antiquity there are chapters on the family religious practices of pre-exile Judaism with information that may come as a surprise. Not all of the pre-exile Jewish families worshiped only one god, according to Rainer Albertz in the chapter "Family Religion in Ancient Israel and Its Surroundings."

07/10/10 - Roman Basilica
Photos of Roman basilicas with some architectural details.

07/09/10 - Roman Architecture
Pages on this site on types of Roman architecture -- like baths and temples.

07/09/10 - Roman Temples
Picture gallery with some of the architectural detail for Roman temples.

07/09/10 - Roman Bridge in Spain
Annotation plus photo of a roman bridge in Spain.

07/08/10 - Maiestas
Glossary entry on the portmanteau Roman criminal charge.

07/08/10 - Roman Architecture and Monuments
Articles on some of Rome's main architectural features.

07/07/10 - The Temple of Vesta
A drawing with details on the Roman forum Temple of Vesta.

07/07/10 - The Roman Pantheon
A photo with details about the Roman temple to all gods known as the Pantheon.

07/06/10 - Short Quizzes
The Toga-Clad People Quiz and Funerary Monuments Quiz.

07/05/10 - Mausoleum of Augustus
Two photos, one outside and one from within of the mausoleum of Emperor Augustus.

07/05/10 - Mausoleum of Hadrian
A photo of the mausoleum of Hadrian, which has been converted.

07/05/10 - Tomb of Caecilia Metella
A photo of the memorial monument to a patrician woman of the late republican period of Rome.

07/05/10 - Ziggurats
Photos of Mesopotamian ziggurats and a sketch of what they probably looked like when they were intact.

07/01/10 - Review of How to Mellify a Corpse, by Vicki Leon
History enthusiasts, students of philosophy, and anyone interested in inventions will welcome How to Mellify a Corpse and Other Human Stories of Ancient Science and Superstition, by Vicki Leon (2010).

07/01/10 - How Do You Write This Year in Roman Numerals
The year is 2010; here are the Roman numerals and the addition.

07/01/10 - Show and Tell Your Greek Costume
You spent a lot of time researching and making it; then you wore it; now tell us about it and show us a picture or two.


06/30/10 - Togas
A look at the different types of Roman togas.

06/29/10 - Clothing in Ancient Greece
A short, annotated bibliography on clothing in Ancient Greece.

06/29/10 - Greek Women's Costumes
Take a few yards of homespun wool, pin, and voila!

06/29/10 - Plato's Passage on Atlantis
Why stop at the cave allegory? Here's the parable of Atlantis, and there's also the famous Myth of Er.

06/26/10 - Buildings in the Roman Forum
Based on an artist's drawing of a reconstruction of the Roman forum, these are the buildings that were there in ancient Rome.

06/25/10 - 2nd Roman Geography Quiz
Self-grading 8 questions.

06/24/10 - 1st Roman Geography Quiz
Self-grading 8 questions.

06/23/10 - Who Is Your Favorite Deity?
Form for you to campaign for your favorite god or goddess. Doesn't have to be Greek.

06/23/10 - Allegory of the Cave
English (Jowett) translation of the Allegory of the Cave, from the Republic of Plato.

06/23/10 - Sol, Solium, Solus, and Solum
Keep the declensions straight. Also see: Auris, Aurum, and Aura

06/23/10 - Roman Timeline
Timeline divided into periods of Roman history.

06/21/10 - Aurum, Auris, Aura
Declensions of high frequency nouns you might confuse.

06/19/10 - Thanatos
Glossary entry on the Greek personification of death.

06/19/10 - Tianhou
Glossary entry on the Chinese Empress of Heaven goddess of sailors.

06/18/10 - Review of The Battle of Marathon, by Peter Krentz
The Battle of Marathon, by Peter Krentz, sifts through the many images of this famous, world-changing 490 B.C. battle to filter out the probable truth.

06/12/10 - Preferred Roman Wines
A look at the higher quality wines lauded by ancient poets and enjoyed by actual Romans and financially secure characters in Roman mysteries.

06/10/10 - Nugua

06/10/10 - Guanyin

06/09/10 - Bithynia
Glossary entry on a territory neighboring Pontus and across the Propontis from Constantinople.

06/08/10 - Standing Stones of Callanish
A circle of stones in the Outer Hebrides like the stones of Stonehenge and perhaps for similar purposes.

06/04/10 - Choregus
Information on the taxing position of the chorus leader in ancient Athens.

06/04/10 - Aeschylus Seven Against Thebes Study Questions
Ideas on what to look for while reading this tragedy.

06/04/10 - Euripides' Bacchae Study Guide
Here are some pages on this site that may help you appreciate Euripides' Bacchae, especially if you are new to reading Greek tragedy.

06/03/10 - Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes Terms to Know
Some terms to know that may help in your reading of the tragedy.

06/03/10 - Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes Summary
Summary of the acts and choral odes in Aeschylus Seven Against Thebes.

06/01/10 - - Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes Dramatis Personae
A quick look at the characters with speaking roles.


05/31/10 - Types of Gladiators
List of gladiator types and salient traits.

05/26/10 - Latin of the Aeneid
Read the Latin of the Aeneid by Vergil. There is one page for each of the 12 books. This is the page for Book I.

05/26/10 - Bacchae Quiz
This is a new quiz on the Bacchae based mainly on last week's new articles (below).

05/26/10 - Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannos Terms to Know
These are terms that seemed important to me for you to know when reading the tragedy.

05/25/10 - Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannos Study Questions
There are millions of things you could look at when reading this very famous and influential Greek tragedy. Here are some ideas of what you might want to keep at the back of your mind while reading.

05/24/10 - Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannos Dramatis Personae
A quick look at the characters with speaking roles.

05/24/10 - Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannos Plot Summary
A summary of the action in the episodes and choral odes (based on the Perseus English translation).

05/22/10 - Shiva

05/21/10 - Euripides' Bacchae Summary
An act by act summary of the posthumously produced tragedy that informs our vision of the worship of Dionysus.

05/20/10 - Euripides' Bacchae Terms to Know

05/19/10 - Euripides' Bacchae Study Questions

05/18/10 - Euripides' Bacchae Dramatis Personae

05/17/10 - Why Study Latin?
It's your turn. You get to tell why you think people should study Latin.

05/17/10 - Egyptian Creation Myths
Something of a summary page of the research done this month on the cosmogonies of ancient Egypt.

05/17/10 - Atum-Re
Glossary entry on a god important especially in the Ennead of Heliopolis.

05/17/10 - Ennead of Heliopolis
Information on this group of 9 gods credited with creating the world and holding it in order.

05/16/10 - Pyramid Texts
Information about the Ennead of Heliopolis and magical spells is contained on these inscriptions.

05/15/10 - Deaths in the Iliad
The name of the killer with his victims and the book of The Iliad in which it occurs.

05/14/10 - Memphite Theology
Glossary entry on this Ptah-based Egyptian theology and cosmogony.

05/14/10 - Shabako Stone
Glossary entry on this inscribed source of information on Egyptian religious beliefs.

05/14/10 - Ptah

05/13/10 - Marduk

05/13/10 - Enuma Elish

05/10/10 - Hermopolis
An explanation of importance of the Upper Egyptian city known by its Greek name of Hermopolis megale.

05/09/10 - Thoth Profile
A look at some of the powers and myths attributed to the Egyptian god Thoth.

05/09/10 - Attributes of Isis
Isis is the best known of the Egyptian goddesses. Between borrowed symbols and her own, she has a number of recognizable attributes.

05/08/10 - Ogdoad of Hermopolis
One of the stories of creation in Egyptian mythology is based on the 8 gods known as the Ogdoad of Hermopolis.

05/06/10 - Daphne and Apollo
The basics of the myth of Daphne's metamorphosis when pursued by an amorous Apollo.

05/04/10 - Pandora's Box
My re-telling of the story of Pandora and her box aka pithos.

05/02/10 - Ptolemy
Glossary entry on the Ptolemy of the Library of Alexandria who authored the Almagest.

05/01/10 - Nut
Glossary entry on an unusual deity, a sky goddess.


04/30/10 - Eudoxus of Cnidus
Glossary entry on this important mathematician who was contemporary with Plato and Aristotle.

04/28/10 - Discoveries in Science Made by Ancient Greek Scientists
A list of ancient Greek scientists who made major discoveries about our world.

04/28/10 - Greco-Roman Physicians
Some of the important names in Greek and Roman medicine.

04/28/10 - Celsus
Glossary entry on Celsus who, while not a doctor, made important contributions to medicine.

04/26/10 - Which Myth Do You Like Best?
Which story from Greco-Roman mythology do you love and why? How would you recommend it to others? If you have enough space and time, please summarize it so others can see what it is that you like so well.

04/23/10 - Confucius and the Philosophy of Confucius
Hardly comprehensive, but an attempt to describe part of the ethical content of what is called Confucianism.

04/23/10 - Suetonius
Brief glossary entry on the Roman biographer Suetonius.

04/23/10 - Mahabharata
Glossary entry on this extremely long Sanskrit epic.

04/21/10 - Valley of the Golden Mummies
Glossary entry on the Egyptian location of a large number of Roman sarcophagi.

04/19/10 - The Furies or Erinyes
Gathered together in one place, you'll find the three most familiar Furies or Erinyes and some citations in case you want to know about the possible others.

04/18/10 - Sol Invictus
Glossary entry on this Roman sun god who is associated with Aurelian (updated page).

04/16/10 - Palamedes
Glossary entry on the Trojan War hero Palamedes.

4/13/10 - Column of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius commemorated his Sarmatian battles on a column similar to the one Trajan used to commemorate his Dacian campaigns.

04/11/10 - Guess Who Quiz I
Identify these 10 photos of male figures.

04/11/10 - Review of Mystery Cults of the Ancient World
Hugh Bowden writes about the secretive, frightening mystery cults of the ancient Greco-Roman world.

04/08/10 - Argeiphontes
Glossary entry on this epithet of Hermes.

04/05/10 - Herm
Glossary entry on the phallic statues of Hermes.

04/02/10 - Which Is the Best Translator?
Here is a place for you to comment on or review paid Latin translating services.


03/30/10 - Latinus
Glossary entry on this early, legendary, peaceful ruler in Italy.

03/29/10 - Battle of Chaeronea
Glossary entry on Sulla's battle against Mithradates' Greek forces.

03/29/10 - Battle of Pydna
Glossary entry on this battle of the 3rd Macedonian War.

03/27/10 - Thebes
Glossary entries on the two ancient cities of Thebes:

03/25/10 - Ballista

03/25/10 - Battle of Carrhae
After Pompey stole his thunder at the end of the Spartacan War, Crassus was eager to prove his military mettle, or perhaps he was only interested in overfilling his coffers. Whatever the reason, he went to war with the Parthians, with devastating personal results.

03/24/10 - Battle of Dyrrhachium
It was Pompey's last best chance to beat Caesar, but he blew it.

03/24/10 - Plebiscitum
The original plebiscites were decrees voted on by the plebeians.

03/23/10 - Who Led the Assassins?
While we may not be able to recreate the meetings of the assassins, we have some idea as to who led them.

03/22/10 - Caesar Assassination Passages
Passages from 4 ancient historians on the conspiracy and assassination of Julius Caesar on the Ides of March in 44 B.C.

03/21/10 - Publius Clodius Pulcher
A profile of Clodius Pulcher highlighting his military experience, the Bona Dea Scandal, and his murder by Milo's rival gang.

03/18/10 - Apuleius' Apology
Public domain etext of the Apology of Apuleius translated into English.

03/16/10 - Livia
Profile of the wife of the first Roman emperor.

03/11/10 - Classical Abbreviations
A list of non-Biblical classical abbreviations with their full forms.

03/11/10 - Zeugma

03/09/10 - Zoroaster
Profile of the founder of Zoroastrianism.

03/08/10 - Zoroastrianism

03/08/10 - Avesta
Glossary entry on the scriptures of Zoroastrianism.

03/05/10 - Who Were the Akhaians?
A question was posed on the AegeaNet mailing list about the identity of the Akhaians because in the Odyssey, it seems to refer to the suitors and elsewhere in Homer, to a wider range of people. Assuming this interests most people new to the Iliad and Odyssey, this is a short answer to that question.

Also see Achaea and Achaean on different uses of the place-name.

03/04/10 - Eponymous

03/03/10 - Hymns to Athena
Public domain English translations of 4 ancient Greek hymns to Athena.

03/02/10 - Amenhotep III
Glossary entry on this important New Kingdom pharaoh.

03/01/10 - Women Warriors
Update: the Amazons, Queen Artemisia, Queen Boudicca, Queen Samsi, Queen Tomyris, Trung Sisters, and Queen Zenobia.


02/23/10 - Review: Makers of Ancient Strategy
Victor Davis Hanson edits a collection of essays by ancient military historians on the topic of strategy in the ancient world.

02/21/10 - Orion

02/18/10 - Aegis
Glossary entry on an item of apparel that could inspire fear in the enemy.

02/18/10 - Gorgoneion

02/18/10 - Etymology - English Words with Latin Prefixes
A face-lift given to this page on Latin prepositions used as English (and Latin) prefixes.

02/17/10 - Parentalia
Glossary entry on this festival to honor the dead held at the end of the Roman year.

02/15/10 - Pulcheria

02/10/10 - Japanese Shinto Gods
A list of major Japanese Shinto gods with salient traits.

02/10/10 - Praeneste

02/09/10 - Marcian
Information on a not very well-known Eastern Roman emperor sometimes described as a second Constantine.

02/08/10 - Unicorn Sources
A list of the main physical traits attributed to the unicorn by ancient writers.

02/02/10 - Seneca's Healthy Mind, Healthy Body
Forget "the burn". Don't worry about "the pain". The object shouldn't be to gain hulking muscles -- at least if you want to try Seneca's advice for sane and healthful living. Updated.

02/02/10 - Roman Battles
A list of the battles Rome fought with winners, losers, and dates.

02/02/10 - Ancient Law-Givers
Ancient rulers of city-states and later nations and empires developed law codes/rules for dealing with family, inheritance, property, slaves, bodily harm, trade regulation, trial procedures, and more. One city might copy another. Even today, law codes build upon existing ones, especially the Roman code of Justinian.

02/01/10 - Sunium


01/26/10 - Which was the First Empire?
As far as we know, this was the first empire and it was in the fertile crescent. Do you know which was the first empire in the world?

01/25/10 - Forum of Nerva

01/24/10 - What was the Largest Ancient Empire?
Do you know which was the largest ancient empire? When it was the largest? How large it was? Were you aware that someone had compared ancient-empire size? If not, see this article.

01/23/10 - Map of Alexander's India
Map showing Alexander the Great's Empire, including the small area in the Punjab and along the Indus that Alexander conquered.

01/22/10 - Early Sources for Ancient Indian History
Early, yes, but not very. Unfortunately, although we now have historical data that go back a millennium before the Muslim invasion of India.

01/22/10 - Donative (Donativum)

01/19/10 - Along Hadrian's Wall
An addition and update to the picture tour of Hadrian's Wall.

01/18/10 - Hypocaust

01/15/10 - 3 Branches of Roman Government - Update
Added a section on the Roman dictator.

01/15/10 - Suetonius on Caesar's Honors and Abuses of Power
Suetonius lists honors granted Julius Caesar towards the end of his life in a paragraph on Caesar's abuses of power. Here are both the Latin and an English translation of the section.

01/13/10 - What You Need to Know About AP Latin Vergil
Basically, a referral to the College Board site on AP Latin, with a look at what students should expect in general.

01/13/10 - Patriarchy
(Glossary). Also: Patriarch.

01/13/10 - Brahman

01/12/10 - Reasons for the Bar Kochba Revolt
Two possible explanations for why the Jews revolted against Hadrian's Rome.

01/12/10 - Musée gallo-romain de Fourvière Lyon
Glossary entry on the archaeological museum of what was the Roman colony of Lugdunum.

01/10/10 - Plancus

01/08/10 - What was the year of 4 emperors?
Also see What was the year of 5 emperors and What was the year of 6 emperors?

01/05/09 - Lyon Tablet

01/03/10 - Cicero Timeline
Update to the timeline of events in Cicero's life and the dates of his publications.

01/02/10 - Nagas
Glossary entry on the half-human half-snake Asian semi-divinity known as a Naga.

01/01/10 - Review: Spartans A New History
Spartans A New History provides a detail-filled look at the Spartans from the Trojan War era to their gradual insignificance.

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2009 Features
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Many articles added from 2004-June 30, 2007 can be found in the blog archives.

2003 Features
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