Sol invictus "the Unconquered Sun" is the name of a Roman sun (sol) god popular from at least the 3rd century.
Before Sol invictus came to prominence, the Romans already had a sun god, Sol indiges, who had been worshiped since the period of the Roman Republic. (The meaning of "indiges" is debated. Sol indiges could mean the indigenous sun.) The Emperor Nero had built a colossal statue associated with a sun god Sol.
Sol invictus may have been an import from the East. The Roman emperor Elagabalus worshiped a Syrian sun god, but it is Emperor Aurelian who is particularly associated with the invictus because he, having attributed to the god his victory over the Palmyrenes [see Table of Roman Battles], set up a temple to Sol invictus in the Campus Martius, established a priesthood for the god, and created games in his honor (ludi solis), in 274. Aurelian tried to establish Sol invictus as supreme god of the Romans, particularly among the military.
During the period of the tetrarchy, Jupiter and Hercules regained prominence in the Roman pantheon, but then, with the accession of Constantine, Sol invictus became top god until Rome's conversion to Christianity.
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The Egyptian Re is another sun god with various aspects.