Zeus sends a lying dream to Agamemnon
One of the first stories I remember hearing as a child is of Agamemnon following his dream's advice. The idea that someone might follow the advice gleaned in sleep may not seem so unusual today, but the idea that gods speak to people in their dreams is not all that common today, especially when gods deliberately use the dream to plant bad advice.
"The goddess Dawn now wended her way"
Dawn is usually described as rosy-fingered and introduces each and every day, unless one of the other gods does it for her.
"Then King Agamemnon rose, holding his sceptre. This was the work of Vulcan, who gave it to Jove the son of Saturn. Jove gave it to Mercury, slayer of Argus, guide and guardian. King Mercury gave it to Pelops, the mighty charioteer, and Pelops to Atreus, shepherd of his people. Atreus, when he died, left it to Thyestes, rich in flocks, and Thyestes in his turn left it to be borne by Agamemnon, that he might be lord of all Argos and of the isles."
Vulcan (Hephaestus) is the blacksmith of the gods. Jove, the Romans' name for the son of Saturn, is Zeus, who is either Hephaestus' step-father or father. Mercury is Hermes to the Greeks. He killed Argus. Hera had sent Argus to guard Io (one of Zeus' women) when she was in cow form. Argus was an immensely strong giant with eyes all over his body so he could sleep with some of his eyes open. Myrtilus is Hermes's son. He helped Pelops win the chariot race that won him his bride Hippodamia. Atreus and Thyestes were two of their sons. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, was a son of Atreus.
"And now, O Muses, dwellers in the mansions of Olympus, tell me-- for you are goddesses and are in all places so that you see all things, while we know nothing but by report--who were the chiefs and princes of the Danaans"
Again, Homer addresses the Muses, this time more than one and places them on Olympus. He needs their help to name the almost uncountable list of Greeks spilling out onto the plains of Troy. This is one of the catalogues in the Iliad. The list gives such data as names of leaders, names of the people they commands, ships, and family information.
"Such were the chiefs and princes of the Danaans. Who, then, O Muse, was the foremost, whether man or horse, among those that followed after the sons of Atreus?"
Achilles is clearly foremost, but since he is sitting it out, the next most important man is Telamon's son Ajax. Later in the story, but beyond the scope of the Iliad, Ajax thinks he deserves Achilles' armor since he was second best. When the armor is instead awarded to Odysseus, he goes mad. He tries to kill Greeks, but Athena brings it about that the "Greeks" are cattle.
"And now Iris, fleet as the wind, was sent by Jove to tell the bad news among the Trojans."
Iris becomes the rainbow goddess, but in the Iliad, she is the main messenger goddess. Hermes becomes the messenger god, but in the Iliad, he is the giant (Argus) killer (see above) or a divine escort.
Following Iris' instructions, the Trojans and their allies line up. There is now a catalogue of the Trojan forces.