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Ancient/Classical History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
From Locusts to Boils, The 10 Plagues of Egypt
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
The Right Ways to Use the Abbreviations i.e....
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
What Was Really inside Pandora's Box?
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
What Were the Gifts of the 3 Wise Men?
The names of the magi or three wisemen who visited the Christ child.
Major Gods and Goddesses of the World ...
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
Top 10 Greek Heroes of Myth and Legend
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
Why Did Rome Fall?
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
Saturnalia - Celebrate the Saturnalia
Saturnalia - Celebrate the Saturnalia
Greek and Roman Gods Everyone Should Know
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
Ancient Egyptians in Scotland?
Do the Scots descend from an ancient Egyptian princess? Explore the national myth that brings Egypt to Edinburgh.
Adeste Fideles
The Lyrics to the Latin Christmas Carol Adeste Fideles.
Latin Christmas Carol Lyrics
Lyrics for Christmas Carols in Latin.
How Tall Was the Great Pyramid?
The tallest of a cluster of three pyramids at Giza, the Great Pyramid has lost some height over the millennia due to erosion. How tall was it originally?
The Life and Influence of Attila the Hun
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
Get the Lyrics to 'Angels We Have Heard on High'
The Lyrics to the Latin Christmas Carol Gloria in Excelsis Deo.
What's the Difference Between the Greeks and...
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
A List of Ancient Sun Gods and Sun Goddesses
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
What Were the 10 Plagues in the Bible?
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
The Meaning Behind the Sword of Damocles
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
How Did Hercules Die?
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
Giving Voice to Dinah
Dinah, the daughter of Jacob and Leah, is the central character of a biblical story in which she never says a word for herself. This bloody episode in Genesis 34 can be seen as a prime example of the way in which the Bible fails to take into account historical documentation of women's lives. Dinah has been given a new voice during the past 14 years thanks to a best-selling novel and a follow-up non-fiction interpretative work.
Which Greek Hero Are You?
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
5 Accomplishments of Julius Caesar
Read about five of the deeds and accomplishments of the great Julius Caesar.
What's the Deal with the "X" in Xmas?
The name Xmas is sometimes seen as a move to take the religious Christ element out of Christmas. But that's not its origins.
The 88 Gods and Goddesses of War
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
Classic Myths and Legends You Should Know
Myths and Legends the story of Cupid and Psyche. Page 4.
Which Greek Goddess Are You?
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
A Quick Summary on the Life and Times of Julius...
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
The Spartan King Who Led the 300
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
Winter Holidays Celebrating the Solstice
6 Winter Holidays Besides Christmas. At or around the Winter Solstice there have been festivals and holidays in ancient as well as modern times.
What Did the Ancient Romans Eat?
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
The Roman Republic's 3 Branches of Government
The Roman Republican form of government had three branches.
Reasons for the Fall of Rome
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
Hercules: The Basic Facts of the Major Greek...
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
What Are the Months in the Jewish Calendar?
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
Evaluating Historical Clues About the Date of...
Jesus may have been born under the Star of Bethlehem, a comet that may have appeared in the spring of 5 B.C.
Learn 15 of the Most Important Deities in...
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
Who Was Moses?
Moses, the recipient of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, and a Hebrew prophet, was the leader of the Hebrew people when they left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness during the Biblical Exodus.
Learn About These Important Ancient Topics
Here are study guides on people and topics important for Ancient/Classical history.
The Many Vital Contributions Ancient Greeks...
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
Why Was the Peloponnesian War Fought?
A look at the causes and sequences of events leading up to the Peloponnesian War.
Meet Justinian, the Last Great Roman Emperor
Justinian was a Roman or Byzantine Emperor.
13 Basic Facts About Alexander the Great
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
The 5 Worst Roman Emperors
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
12 Ancient Lunar Luminaries
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
The Dramatic Life of Cleopatra, Egypt's Last...
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
What's So Interesting about Deborah of the Old...
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
Ancient China in Pictures
Trade and economy in ancient China. Page 5.
Do You Know the 9 Greek Muses?
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
The Many, Many Wives of the Bible's King David
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
What Did Ancient Egyptians Eat?
Here are the basic foods the ancient Egyptians ate.
Here's Why These Are the Most Important People...
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
Do You Know Where Cleopatra Was Originally...
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
Is Ares Basically a B-List Greek God?
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
6 Fast Facts About Mesopotamia (Modern Iraq)
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq and an area that included various, changing nations in the ancient world.
What Happened When Rome Fell?
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
Aesop's Fables - The Brother and the Sister
Aesop's Fables - Brother and the Sister: aesop s fables ancient classical history george fyler townsend aesop ugliness
Where Did the Greek God Hades Rule?
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
See Art Based on the Odyssey
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast.
15 Translations for Colors in Latin
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
Learn About the Dynasties of Ancient China
These are the dynasties of ancient China.
Most Beautiful Women
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
The Unusual Birth of the Goddess Athena
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
How Great Was Constantine?
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
Quotes From Pluatarch's Moralia
First Page of Quotes from Plutarch's Moralia.
Profile of the Greek God Apollo
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
Latin Learners, Start With This Guide to Latin...
Latin tenses for Latin verbs in the Indicative.
Cleopatra's Kids
Cleopatra, the last queen of Egypt, had four kids. Were their fates as grim as their mother's?
What Are the Exodus Passages Listing the 10...
These are the 10 Commandments from the King James Version of the book of Exodus chapter 20, along with some comparisons to other versions.
Who Was Paul of Tarsus?
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
Who Were Hercules' Parents?
Who were the parents of Hercules?
13 Ancient Cultures, and the Gods They Worshipped
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
What's Behind the Ancient Acronym SPQR?
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
The Family and Loves of the Greek God of the Sea
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
Who Are the 7 Archangels?
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
The 10 Greatest Ancient Military Leaders
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
Was Cleopatra Really as Beautiful as They Say?
The name Cleopatra Queen of Egypt has often been used to mean a seductive, beautiful woman, but Cleopatra may not have been beautiful at all.
Fast Facts About the Greek God Zeus
Fast facts about the Olympian god Zeus.
The Major Events of the Persian Wars
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
What Was the Role of Perseus in Greek Mythology?
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
Learn About the Two-Faced Roman God Janus
Roman god Janus. Ancient / Classical History.
Who Said 'The Face That Launched a Thousand...
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What Was Life Like During the Pax Romana?
Pax Romana is Latin for Roman peace.
What Happened During the Shang Dynasty, and Why...
The Shang Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history with both archaeological and documentary (written centuries later) evidence.
A Timeline for the Fall of Rome
A timeline showing a chronological list of only major events leading to the fall of Rome.
The Death of Balder
The death of the Norse god Balder and the punishment of Loki.
Solstice Celebrations
Mithras (Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) shares religious symbolism with Christianity. Page 4.
A Guide to Norse Mythology
Background information on Norse mythology. This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
Why Hera was not a Goddess to Mess With
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
What's the Role of Hades in Greek Mythology?
Information about the Greek god Hades who abducted Persephone and made her the queen of the Underworld.
What Was the World Like During the Roman...
Roman culture includes its architecture and technology, entertainment system, which includes gladiators and Roman theater, its literature, medicine, religion and myth, and philosophy.
Who Was Pericles (And Why Is There an Age Named...
Pericles was the leader of Athens at the time of the building of the Parthenon and the Peloponnesian War.
Here's Why Mt. Vesuvius is the World's Most...
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
The 7 Romance Languages
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
The 12 Greek Gods You Should Know
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
What Are the 12 Tribes of Israel?
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
The Ancient Origins of the Swastika
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
Why You Should Beware the Ides of March (Or Not)
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
Who Were the Etruscans?
A look at the possible identity of the Etruscans.
A Quick History on the Nymphs of Greek Mythology
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
The History Behind 'The 300'
Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
Beyond Russell Crowe: Everything You Need to...
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
Learn the Real Meaning Behind these Famous...
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
Discover the Code-Breaking History of the...
The key to understanding Egyptian hieroglyphs was the Rosetta Stone.
Aristotle's Take on Democracy
Aristotle argues that all forms of government have their problems, including, but not limited to democracy.
How to Say Happy Birthday in Latin
In Latin, words that mean may it be a happy birthday would convey the message of Happy Birthday.
Who's Who: Babylonian Gods and Goddesses
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
A Look at Bathsheba and King David's Romance
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
How Spartacus Led a Slave Revolt and Defied Rome
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
Table of the Roman Equivalents of Greek Gods-...
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods
Which Was the World's First Empire?
Answer to the question, Ancient/Classical History.
How Important Was the Chorus to Greek Theater?
Learn these important points about Greek theater and especially Greek tragedy. Page 2.
How Taxes Led to the Fall of Rome
Rome fell or changed partly as a result of economic policies of the Roman emperors.
Demeter - By Her Brothers Betrayed
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
What Was the Babylonian King Hammurabi?
King Hammurabi of Babylonia was an important Babylonian king known for his early law code, the Code of Hammurabi.
The Growth of Rome
An introductory look at the growth of Rome, how Rome expanded its power to become master of Italy.
The Life and Career of Pompey the Great
Information on Caesar's contemporary and opponent, Pompey, the Roman military leader who quelled the pirate menace and was named the great after the Mithridatic Wars.
Myths About Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love and...
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known as Venus in Rome and was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
What's the Significance of Biblical Hebrew Names?
It's important to know the meaning and significance of Biblical and Hebrew names before you give one to your child. Here are resources especially for people in the process of finding a name for their newborn.
Why Dionysus Brought the Party with Him
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and ecstacy.
The Sky God, Zeus
Zeus is the name of the Greek king of the Gods, the equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter, a sky god.
187 Aristotle Quotes on Living Well
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
A Profile of Xerxes the Great, King of the...
Xerxes was a king of the Medes and Persians, who fought against the Ancient Greeks in the Persian Wars.
How to Write Greek Letters With HTML
If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
Decide for Yourself: Is Atlantis Real or Fiction?
Atlantis is a story from Plato's Timaeus.
Toga, Toga! 5 Facts About Ancient Greek Clothing
Five facts about ancient Greco-Roman clothing.
Top 9 Love Goddesses
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
Celtic Gods and Goddesses
A list of major Celtic gods and goddesses.
When Did the Most Famous Greek Philosophers Live?
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts
Gregory Flood's Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts. Etruscan counterparts of Roman gods and goddesses compiled by Gregory Flood.
What Do We Really Know About the Life and Work...
Learn what we think we know about the writer of one of the top three most popular books of all time.
Horatius at the Bridge
Horatius at the Bridge poem by Lord Macaulay: lars porsena thomas babington macaulay horatius at the bridge clusium southern sky
Moses: The Baby in the Basket
As a baby, Moses wasn't exposed, but he was stuck in a basket and set adrift amid the bulrushes. Read why and what happened next.
What's So Interesting about the Greek God Cronos?
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
The Seasons and Elements of the 4 Bodily Humors
Here is a look at the major terms connected with the Hippocratic method and especially the ancient medical use of the theory of the four humors.
A Profile of the Roman Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius, the second emperor of Rome, was not flashy or charismatic enough to overcome either his sensible domestic policy or his gossip-filled seclusion from public life.
9 Accomplishments of the Ancient Chinese
Advances in technology and the arts and other accomplishments, especially in the area of technology in the ancient Chinese dynasties.
How Did Ancient Romans Keep Clean?
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
A Timeline of the Peloponnesian War's Major...
Timeline of the major treaties and battles in the Peloponnesian War.
The Early Kings of Rome
The names and dates of the legendary kings of Rome.
The 3 Possible Ways a Gladiator Fight Could End
The editor of a gladiatorial match decided who lived and who died in the arena, although he usually paid some attention to the cries of the crowds and the gestures for mercy of the gladiators.
These Terms Will Help You Read Ancient History
The Ancient / Classical History glossary is an evolving resource on people and topics in ancient history, mythology and classical literature, mostly with very brief descriptions and biographies.
A Helmet, an Olive ... What Are Athena's Other...
A listing of Athena's symbols. Ancient / Classical History.
How Did Jews Live During Jesus' Time?
Understanding how the Jews lived in Jesus' time requires reading the New Testament within the context of first-century Judaism and the Roman Empire. Biblical texts hold clues to the influences on Judaism of its religious heritage and Roman occupation.
What Is the Fertile Crescent?
The Fertile Crescent is a name for a relatively fertile arc-shaped area by the Mediterranean which covers Biblical lands, the Tigris and Euphrates, and the Nile Valley.
Rubicon - Crossing the Rubicon
What it means when we say someone, or specifically, Julius Caesar, crossed the Rubicon.
The Legend of Romulus and the Founding of Rome
Romulus was the first of the seven Roman kings and the founder of the city of Rome.
Helen and Paris: Their Relationship Started the...
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
The Life and Accomplishments of King Nebuchadne...
Nebuchadnezzar is best known for his Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world -- which he may not actually have created and the Captivity of the Hebrews.
The Rise and Fall of Julius Caesar's Political...
Julius Caesar and his rise to power in the Roman Republic and the relationship between Caesar and Sulla. Also, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus as the First Triumvirate.
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