Ancient/Classical History: Most Popular Articles
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq and an area that included various, changing nations in the ancient world.
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
Here are study guides on people and topics important for Ancient/Classical history.
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
Maps showing an area of the eastern Mediterranean important in antiquity and known as the Levant.
Trade and economy in ancient China. Page 5.
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
Myths and Legends the story of Cupid and Psyche. Page 4.
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
The Fertile Crescent is a name for a relatively fertile arc-shaped area by the Mediterranean which covers Biblical lands, the Tigris and Euphrates, and the Nile Valley.
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
Achilles was considered the greatest Greek hero of the Trojan War.
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
The Shang Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history with both archaeological and documentary (written centuries later) evidence.
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
Sappho and Alcaeus, contemporaries from Lesbos, wrote lyric poetry.
The Roman Republican form of government had three branches.
Time line of major events in the ancient history of the world. Most dates and events on the ancient history timeline are of political importance.
Ancient Greek government varied from place to place and time to time.
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
Learn these important points about Greek theater and especially Greek tragedy. Page 2.
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
Aristotle argues that all forms of government have their problems, including, but not limited to democracy.
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
A description of the sequence of major events of the Trojan War and Homer's 'Iliad', starting with the theft by Paris of Helen of Troy.
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
Old Kingdom Egypt was an important period of ancient Egyptian history made famous for the building of the Step Pyramid.
Latin tenses for Latin verbs in the Indicative.
Information about the Greek god Hades who abducted Persephone and made her the queen of the Underworld.
Nebuchadnezzar is best known for his Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world -- which he may not actually have created and the Captivity of the Hebrews.
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
Moses, the recipient of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, and a Hebrew prophet, was the leader of the Hebrew people when they left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness during the Biblical Exodus.
Glossary entry on polis, the ancient Greek city-state.
A look at the possible identity of the Etruscans.
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
The beginning of religion and the development of gods and goddesses in ancient Mesopotamian
Euripides, a Greek writer of tragedy, introduced drama about love to Old Comedy. Third of the great Greek tragedians, Euripides was born c. 484 B.C. and died 406 B.C., possibly in Macedonia, although that may have been one of the many fanciful legends created about this controversial playwright.
Learn what we think we know about the writer of one of the top three most popular books of all time.
Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
The letters of the Greek alphabet.
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known as Venus in Rome and was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
Highlights of the Book of Ruth. Ancient / Classical History.
Among the creation myths of the Ancient Greeks is the story by Hesiod in his Works and Days about the five ages of man beginning with the Golden Age.
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and ecstacy.
What was the charge against Socrates for which he had to commit suicide by drinking a cup of hemlock?
Fast facts about the Olympian god Zeus.
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
These are the dynasties of ancient China.
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
A look at the causes and sequences of events leading up to the Peloponnesian War.
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
Here is a look at the major terms connected with the Hippocratic method and especially the ancient medical use of the theory of the four humors.
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
The Roman Emperor Hadrian started to build what became known as Hadrian's Wall to keep the 'barbarian' Picts from Scotland out of Roman Britain.
Democracy Then and Now. A look at the meaning of the word democracy in ancient politics as contrasted with what we mean by democracy today.
List of the major Greek goddesses in Greek mythology.
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
Chronological list of ten of the most important early Greek philosophers.
Pericles was the leader of Athens at the time of the building of the Parthenon and the Peloponnesian War.
If it weren't for Prometheus, we wouldn't be here. Learn why.
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, came up with the idea of the wooden horse and returned home by an adventure-filled circuitous route that took ten years.
These are the main uses of the 7 cases of Latin nouns.
Justinian was a Roman or Byzantine Emperor.
Here are the basic foods the ancient Egyptians ate.
Do you know why your kids should learn Latin? Here are some of the advantages your children will enjoy if they study Latin.
Answer to the question, Ancient / Classical History.
Background information on Norse mythology. This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast.
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
The tallest of a cluster of three pyramids at Giza, the Great Pyramid has lost some height over the millennia due to erosion. How tall was it originally?
King Darius I, an Achaemenid dynasty king, ruled the Persians.
King Hammurabi of Babylonia was an important Babylonian king known for his early law code, the Code of Hammurabi.
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A listing of Athena's symbols. Ancient / Classical History.
If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
Xerxes was a king of the Medes and Persians, who fought against the Ancient Greeks in the Persian Wars.
Aspects of the goddess of love, the goddess Venus, the Roman Aphrodite.
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
The Xia Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history.
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
A timeline showing a chronological list of only major events leading to the fall of Rome.
Five facts about ancient Greco-Roman clothing.
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Who were the parents of Hercules?
Learn about the two generations of the enormous mythological creatures known as Titans.
Gregory Flood's Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts. Etruscan counterparts of Roman gods and goddesses compiled by Gregory Flood.
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
Read about five of the deeds and accomplishments of the great Julius Caesar.
An introductory look at the growth of Rome, how Rome expanded its power to become master of Italy.
During the Lemuria, Romans appeased the dead with beans.
Basics on the Greek philosopher Aristotle whose influence was felt not just in the ancient world, but the Middle Ages, and so became part of modern systems, especially in logic and science.
The era called Neolithic is also called the new stone age.
Fast facts about the Olympian god Hermes.
The names and dates of the legendary kings of Rome.
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
Pax Romana is Latin for Roman peace.
Zeus is the name of the Greek king of the Gods, the equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter, a sky god.
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
As a baby, Moses wasn't exposed, but he was stuck in a basket and set adrift amid the bulrushes. Read why and what happened next.
These are the 10 Commandments from the King James Version of the book of Exodus chapter 20, along with some comparisons to other versions.
Myths about the Greek god Hades involving Heracles (Hercules), Persephone, and Theseus.
Description of the Greek leader of the Trojan War, Agamemnon.
Information on Hermes, the Greek god.
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.
: Where does the expression "The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships" come from? : The face that launched
Basic information on the geography of ancient Greece.