Ancient/Classical History: Most Popular Articles
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
Myths and Legends the story of Cupid and Psyche. Page 4.
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
Celtic beliefs about the holiday of Samhain or Halloween
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
Read about five of the deeds and accomplishments of the great Julius Caesar.
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
The Roman Republican form of government had three branches.
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
A look at the causes and sequences of events leading up to the Peloponnesian War.
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq and an area that included various, changing nations in the ancient world.
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
Trade and economy in ancient China. Page 5.
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
Who were the parents of Hercules?
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
Here are study guides on people and topics important for Ancient/Classical history.
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
A look at the possible identity of the Etruscans.
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
Moses, the recipient of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, and a Hebrew prophet, was the leader of the Hebrew people when they left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness during the Biblical Exodus.
Information about the Greek god Hades who abducted Persephone and made her the queen of the Underworld.
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
The tallest of a cluster of three pyramids at Giza, the Great Pyramid has lost some height over the millennia due to erosion. How tall was it originally?
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
Ancient Greek women wore clothing that is simple to construct -- once the weaving is done.
Diwali is a Hindu harvest-related festival of lights.
A description of the sequence of major events of the Trojan War and Homer's 'Iliad', starting with the theft by Paris of Helen of Troy.
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
In Plato's Symposium, Aristophanes' contribution to the discussion of love is to tell the story of the creation of lesbians, gays, and heterosexuals.
Justinian was a Roman or Byzantine Emperor.
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast.
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
King Hammurabi of Babylonia was an important Babylonian king known for his early law code, the Code of Hammurabi.
Here are the basic foods the ancient Egyptians ate.
A timeline showing a chronological list of only major events leading to the fall of Rome.
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
Background information on Norse mythology. This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
Learn what we think we know about the writer of one of the top three most popular books of all time.
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
These are the 10 Commandments from the King James Version of the book of Exodus chapter 20, along with some comparisons to other versions.
Ancient Greek government varied from place to place and time to time.
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
Latin tenses for Latin verbs in the Indicative.
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
Fast facts about the Olympian god Zeus.
Nebuchadnezzar is best known for his Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world -- which he may not actually have created and the Captivity of the Hebrews.
Tiberius, the second emperor of Rome, was not flashy or charismatic enough to overcome either his sensible domestic policy or his gossip-filled seclusion from public life.
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
The name Cleopatra Queen of Egypt has often been used to mean a seductive, beautiful woman, but Cleopatra may not have been beautiful at all.
An introductory look at the growth of Rome, how Rome expanded its power to become master of Italy.
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known as Venus in Rome and was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
Learn these important points about Greek theater and especially Greek tragedy. Page 2.
Rome fell or changed partly as a result of economic policies of the Roman emperors.
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and ecstacy.
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
Glossary entry on polis, the ancient Greek city-state.
Highlights of the Book of Ruth. Ancient / Classical History.
Fast facts about the Olympian god Hermes.
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
The Shang Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history with both archaeological and documentary (written centuries later) evidence.
Information on Caesar's contemporary and opponent, Pompey, the Roman military leader who quelled the pirate menace and was named the great after the Mithridatic Wars.
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
Euripides, a Greek writer of tragedy, introduced drama about love to Old Comedy. Third of the great Greek tragedians, Euripides was born c. 484 B.C. and died 406 B.C., possibly in Macedonia, although that may have been one of the many fanciful legends created about this controversial playwright.
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
Did Odysseus and Penelope live happily ever after? As secret love children and father-killers emerge, dive into the real story of the Odyssey!
Aspects of the goddess of love, the goddess Venus, the Roman Aphrodite.
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
The Fertile Crescent is a name for a relatively fertile arc-shaped area by the Mediterranean which covers Biblical lands, the Tigris and Euphrates, and the Nile Valley.
Gregory Flood's Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts. Etruscan counterparts of Roman gods and goddesses compiled by Gregory Flood.
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
Five facts about ancient Greco-Roman clothing.
Which emperors should you avoid at all costs, especially when soaking in the bathhouse? Tiberius, Galba, Commodus, Caracalla, and Nero!
Julius Caesar and his rise to power in the Roman Republic and the relationship between Caesar and Sulla. Also, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus as the First Triumvirate.
If it weren't for Prometheus, we wouldn't be here. Learn why.
The key to understanding Egyptian hieroglyphs was the Rosetta Stone.
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods
These are the dynasties of ancient China.
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
Roman culture includes its architecture and technology, entertainment system, which includes gladiators and Roman theater, its literature, medicine, religion and myth, and philosophy.
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
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If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
The editor of a gladiatorial match decided who lived and who died in the arena, although he usually paid some attention to the cries of the crowds and the gestures for mercy of the gladiators.
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
Achilles was considered the greatest Greek hero of the Trojan War.
Pericles was the leader of Athens at the time of the building of the Parthenon and the Peloponnesian War.
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
Want to check which battle Alexander first fought in -- Chaeronea or Granicus or what year he became the leader of the Macedonians? This short timeline shows such events at a glance: A timeline of major events in the life of Alexander the Great.
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history. Page 2 of 7.
The beginning of religion and the development of gods and goddesses in ancient Mesopotamian
Aristotle argues that all forms of government have their problems, including, but not limited to democracy.
Democracy Then and Now. A look at the meaning of the word democracy in ancient politics as contrasted with what we mean by democracy today.
The Gracchi Brothers - Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchu
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
Hannibal (Hannibal Barca) was the military leader of Carthage in the Second Punic War.
Facts and information on the Tigris River, one of the two main rivers of the ancient city Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
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The Xia Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history.
Anubis - Egyptian God Anubis. Ancient / Classical History.
List of the major Greek goddesses in Greek mythology.
Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, came up with the idea of the wooden horse and returned home by an adventure-filled circuitous route that took ten years.
It's important to know the meaning and significance of Biblical and Hebrew names before you give one to your child. Here are resources especially for people in the process of finding a name for their newborn.
Learn about the Greek mythological origins of the term cyclops.
Time line of major events in the ancient history of the world. Most dates and events on the ancient history timeline are of political importance.
They don't make hero stories like these anymore. Read up on Trojan War heroes and other Greeks who successfully battled impossible odds.
Xerxes was a king of the Medes and Persians, who fought against the Ancient Greeks in the Persian Wars.
Here is a look at the major terms connected with the Hippocratic method and especially the ancient medical use of the theory of the four humors.
Understanding how the Jews lived in Jesus' time requires reading the New Testament within the context of first-century Judaism and the Roman Empire. Biblical texts hold clues to the influences on Judaism of its religious heritage and Roman occupation.
A list of major Celtic gods and goddesses.