Ancient / Classical History: Most Popular Articles
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
Who were the parents of Hercules?
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
Public Domain Translation of Suetonius' Life of Caligula
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
Myths and Legends the story of Cupid and Psyche. Page 4.
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
Highlights of the Book of Ruth. Ancient / Classical History.
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
Achilles was considered the greatest Greek hero of the Trojan War.
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
A list of Roman gods and goddesses, compiled by Gregory Flood.
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
Xerxes was a king of the Medes and Persians, who fought against the Ancient Greeks in the Persian Wars.
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
Which Ancient Conqueror Are You? Take this quiz to determine which warrior you and your alter-ego really
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
Moses, the recipient of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, and a Hebrew prophet, was the leader of the Hebrew people when they left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness during the Biblical Exodus.
: Where does the expression "The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships" come from? : The face that launched
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
Here are study guides on people and topics important for Ancient/Classical history.
It's important to know the meaning and significance of Biblical and Hebrew names before you give one to your child. Here are resources especially for people in the process of finding a name for their newborn.
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
Background information on Norse mythology. This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
The name Cleopatra Queen of Egypt has often been used to mean a seductive, beautiful woman, but Cleopatra may not have been beautiful at all.
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
Lycurgus was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta. Plutarch describes the life of Lycurgus as if Lycurgus had been a real person. Herodotus and Xenophon also wrote about Lycurgus and his constitution.
Aesop's Fables - The Boy Bathing: aesop s fables ancient classical history george fyler townsend aesop helping hand
Thes Suetonius-based list includes Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of Rome, from the Julio-Claudians through the Flavians.
List of the major Greek goddesses in Greek mythology.
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
A list of major Celtic gods and goddesses.
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
Time line of major events in the ancient history of the world. Most dates and events on the ancient history timeline are of political importance.
The editor of a gladiatorial match decided who lived and who died in the arena, although he usually paid some attention to the cries of the crowds and the gestures for mercy of the gladiators.
Atlantis is a story from Plato's Timaeus.
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
The Biblical passage showing the classical example of the wisdom of Solomon.
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
Understanding how the Jews lived in Jesus' time requires reading the New Testament within the context of first-century Judaism and the Roman Empire. Biblical texts hold clues to the influences on Judaism of its religious heritage and Roman occupation.
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
Amazons Identity Questions - Who Were the Amazons? Did the Amazons actually exist? Were the Amazons man-haters? women warriors who each cut off a breast to be better archers? Dr. Jeannine Davis-Kimball does research to uncover the answers.
Most scholars think of Abigail as King David's wisest wife. By deflecting David's anger toward her first husband, Nabal, for refusing to give David and his men supplies, Abigail both saved her own household and kept David from a serious tactical error of murdering Nabal. Captivated by her beauty and wisdom, David wastes no time in marrying Abigail when her first husband dies. Abigail and David shared many characteristics that made Abigail the comrade that David needed for success.
In Latin, words that mean may it be a happy birthday would convey the message of Happy Birthday.
Short notes on individual Norse gods and goddesses in Norse mythology.
Learn about the two generations of the enormous mythological creatures known as Titans.
As a baby, Moses wasn't exposed, but he was stuck in a basket and set adrift amid the bulrushes. Read why and what happened next.
Ancient women warriors. Ancient women who led troops into battle: Amazons, Queen Artemisia, Queen Boudicca, Queen Samsi, Queen Tomyris, Trung Sisters, Queen Zenobia.
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
Basics on the Norse Thunder God Thor.
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known as Venus in Rome and was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
Latin quote from Vegetius. Prepare for war and the Latin version of the quote from Vegetius.
Etext of the Old Testament Book of Daniel.: nebuchadnezzar king of babylon king of judah ancient judaism land of shinar king of babylon
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
Michal, daughter of King Saul, was David's first wife. The Bible reports that Michal loved David, but the context of the story seems to indicate that her love was not returned by her husband. Michal and David appeared to have been married in a political alliance. When David danced nearly naked before the Ark of the Covenant, Michal's rebuke drew a harsh reply from David. Michal and David had no children.
These are the 10 Commandments from the King James Version of the book of Exodus chapter 20, along with some comparisons to other versions.
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
The history of the truly ancient period of India is severely limited, but starting with the time of Alexander the Great we have some written eye-witness records thanks to Nearchus and Megasthenes.
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.
Nebuchadnezzar is best known for his Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world -- which he may not actually have created and the Captivity of the Hebrews.
Ever wonder where the idea of the number seven as lucky came from? More likely than not, the idea of good luck associated with seven comes from the number 7 in the Bible. The interpretation of scriptures by using numbers is known as
Glossary entry on the Elysian fields.
If it weren't for Prometheus, we wouldn't be here. Learn why.
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
Do you know why your kids should learn Latin? Here are some of the advantages your children will enjoy if they study Latin.
The Holy Bible, in both Jewish and Christian versions, makes it clear that men were the bosses in most biblical settings. However, the answers to some frequently asked questions show that there were strong women in the Bible who stood out all the more because they surmounted or circumvented the patriarchy in which they lived. Some of these women are Deborah, Jezebel, Tamar, Ruth and Naomi.
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
They don't make hero stories like these anymore. Read up on Trojan War heroes and other Greeks who successfully battled impossible odds.
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
Dagon was the chief god of the Philistines and was also a corn god.
Rome spread from a single settlement on the Tiber. First it spread to the surrounding territory, then all of Italy, and then most of western Europe, north Africa, Greece, and Asia Minor.
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq and an area that included various, changing nations in the ancient world.
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A timeline showing a chronological list of only major events leading to the fall of Rome.
Veni, vidi, vici were the words Caesar used to succinctly convey his victory.
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
Some of the main points to know about King Solomon
A list of war goddesses from ancient mythology.
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
Zeus is the name of the Greek king of the Gods, the equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter, a sky god.
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
Glossary entry on the Philistines
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and ecstacy.
A description of the sequence of major events of the Trojan War and Homer's 'Iliad', starting with the theft by Paris of Helen of Troy.
Chronological list of ten of the most important early Greek philosophers.
Horatius at the Bridge poem by Lord Macaulay: lars porsena thomas babington macaulay horatius at the bridge clusium southern sky
See where on a map ancient places names fit.: ancient maps of rome maps of rome maps asia biblical maps asia maps
Battle of Marathon in the Persian Wars 490 was an important moment for the victorious Athenians, renowned today more for a legendary marathon runner than the battle itself.
Aspects of the goddess of love, the goddess Venus, the Roman Aphrodite.
Greek mythology is one of the most fascinating and colorful topics connected with the ancient world. Here is an introduction to the mythology and gods and goddesses who still play a part in today's world.
English translation of the story of the Marriage of Cupid and Psyche from the Latin Golden Ass or Metamorphosis, by Apuleius.
Hercules had to perform the 12 Labors probably as atonement for his mad behavior. Read more about the hero's murderous madness.
Chapter XXXVIII of Thomas Bulfinch's The Age of Fable The Death Of Baldur - The Elves - Runic Letters - Iceland - Teutonic Mythology - Nibelungen Lied.
Some of the major gods and goddesses of the Chinese.
A look at the assumptions made about the history of the ancient Indus Valley civilization that are based on the Aryan Invasion.
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast.
Hannibal (Hannibal Barca) was the military leader of Carthage in the Second Punic War.
Was Hannibal Black? Ancient / Classical History.
Archaeological evidence about the story of Abraham in the Bible.
Read the basics about the Roman forum or Forum Romanum, by the Capitoline Hill, the center of life in ancient Rome.
Among the creation myths of the Ancient Greeks is the story by Hesiod in his Works and Days about the five ages of man beginning with the Golden Age.
Euripides, a Greek writer of tragedy, introduced drama about love to Old Comedy. Third of the great Greek tragedians, Euripides was born c. 484 B.C. and died 406 B.C., possibly in Macedonia, although that may have been one of the many fanciful legends created about this controversial playwright.
Here are the eight main gods of Greek mythology. Learn about their main powers and attributes.
Ashoka was an important Buddhist king in India in the 3rd century B.C.