Ancient/Classical History: Most Popular Articles
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
Introduction to Greek Mythology. Myths and legends.
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq and an area that included various, changing nations in the ancient world.
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
Take this quiz to see which type of Roman you would have been.
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
These are the 10 Commandments from the King James Version of the book of Exodus chapter 20, along with some comparisons to other versions.
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
Time line of major events in the ancient history of the world. Most dates and events on the ancient history timeline are of political importance.
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
Highlights of the Book of Ruth. Ancient / Classical History.
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
Major figures in the Trojan War.
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
Cities of Mesopotamia. Ancient / Classical History. Page 7.
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
Moses, the recipient of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, and a Hebrew prophet, was the leader of the Hebrew people when they left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness during the Biblical Exodus.
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
Achilles was considered the greatest Greek hero of the Trojan War.
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
Do you know why your kids should learn Latin? Here are some of the advantages your children will enjoy if they study Latin.
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
Who were the parents of Hercules?
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
The letters of the Greek alphabet.
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
Thes Suetonius-based list includes Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of Rome, from the Julio-Claudians through the Flavians.
Xerxes was a king of the Medes and Persians, who fought against the Ancient Greeks in the Persian Wars.
Background information on Norse mythology. This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
The name Cleopatra Queen of Egypt has often been used to mean a seductive, beautiful woman, but Cleopatra may not have been beautiful at all.
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
List of the major Greek goddesses in Greek mythology.
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
It's important to know the meaning and significance of Biblical and Hebrew names before you give one to your child. Here are resources especially for people in the process of finding a name for their newborn.
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
Here are study guides on people and topics important for Ancient/Classical history.
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
List of the rivers of the Underworld.
A list of major Celtic gods and goddesses.
: Where does the expression "The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships" come from? : The face that launched
Which Ancient Conqueror Are You? Take this quiz to determine which warrior you and your alter-ego really
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
The Fertile Crescent is a name for a relatively fertile arc-shaped area by the Mediterranean which covers Biblical lands, the Tigris and Euphrates, and the Nile Valley.
Understanding how the Jews lived in Jesus' time requires reading the New Testament within the context of first-century Judaism and the Roman Empire. Biblical texts hold clues to the influences on Judaism of its religious heritage and Roman occupation.
Nebuchadnezzar is best known for his Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world -- which he may not actually have created and the Captivity of the Hebrews.
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known as Venus in Rome and was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
The Shang Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history with both archaeological and documentary (written centuries later) evidence.
The Roman Republican form of government had three branches.
Aristotle argues that all forms of government have their problems, including, but not limited to democracy.
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
The tales of the Greek mythology written by Thomas Bulfinch, which is known as Bulfinch's Mythology.
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods
Most scholars think of Abigail as King David's wisest wife. By deflecting David's anger toward her first husband, Nabal, for refusing to give David and his men supplies, Abigail both saved her own household and kept David from a serious tactical error of murdering Nabal. Captivated by her beauty and wisdom, David wastes no time in marrying Abigail when her first husband dies. Abigail and David shared many characteristics that made Abigail the comrade that David needed for success.
King Darius I, an Achaemenid dynasty king, ruled the Persians.
Short notes on individual Norse gods and goddesses in Norse mythology.
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
Learn about the two generations of the enormous mythological creatures known as Titans.
As a baby, Moses wasn't exposed, but he was stuck in a basket and set adrift amid the bulrushes. Read why and what happened next.
A description of the sequence of major events of the Trojan War and Homer's 'Iliad', starting with the theft by Paris of Helen of Troy.
The Biblical passage showing the classical example of the wisdom of Solomon.
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
Learn what we think we know about the writer of one of the top three most popular books of all time.
Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, came up with the idea of the wooden horse and returned home by an adventure-filled circuitous route that took ten years.
Aspects of the goddess of love, the goddess Venus, the Roman Aphrodite.
A look at the assumptions made about the history of the ancient Indus Valley civilization that are based on the Aryan Invasion.
The Holy Bible, in both Jewish and Christian versions, makes it clear that men were the bosses in most biblical settings. However, the answers to some frequently asked questions show that there were strong women in the Bible who stood out all the more because they surmounted or circumvented the patriarchy in which they lived. Some of these women are Deborah, Jezebel, Tamar, Ruth and Naomi.
Ashoka was an important Buddhist king in India in the 3rd century B.C.
Hannibal (Hannibal Barca) was the military leader of Carthage in the Second Punic War.
Ancient women warriors. Ancient women who led troops into battle: Amazons, Queen Artemisia, Queen Boudicca, Queen Samsi, Queen Tomyris, Trung Sisters, Queen Zenobia.
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
Chronological list of ten of the most important early Greek philosophers.
The history of the truly ancient period of India is severely limited, but starting with the time of Alexander the Great we have some written eye-witness records thanks to Nearchus and Megasthenes.
If it weren't for Prometheus, we wouldn't be here. Learn why.
A few tables to help make sense of compound words by looking at the etymology, Greek and Latin roots and the prefixes and affixes.
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
In Latin, words that mean may it be a happy birthday would convey the message of Happy Birthday.
Rome spread from a single settlement on the Tiber. First it spread to the surrounding territory, then all of Italy, and then most of western Europe, north Africa, Greece, and Asia Minor.
The editor of a gladiatorial match decided who lived and who died in the arena, although he usually paid some attention to the cries of the crowds and the gestures for mercy of the gladiators.
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
Basics on the Norse Thunder God Thor.
Michal, daughter of King Saul, was David's first wife. The Bible reports that Michal loved David, but the context of the story seems to indicate that her love was not returned by her husband. Michal and David appeared to have been married in a political alliance. When David danced nearly naked before the Ark of the Covenant, Michal's rebuke drew a harsh reply from David. Michal and David had no children.
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Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
A timeline showing a chronological list of only major events leading to the fall of Rome.
The beginning of religion and the development of gods and goddesses in ancient Mesopotamian
Maps showing an area of the eastern Mediterranean important in antiquity and known as the Levant.
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
Euripides, a Greek writer of tragedy, introduced drama about love to Old Comedy. Third of the great Greek tragedians, Euripides was born c. 484 B.C. and died 406 B.C., possibly in Macedonia, although that may have been one of the many fanciful legends created about this controversial playwright.
This is a 1911 encyclopedia article on the Greek God Aeolus. In Greek and Roman mythology, Aeolus was a wind god.
Ever wonder where the idea of the number seven as lucky came from? More likely than not, the idea of good luck associated with seven comes from the number 7 in the Bible. The interpretation of scriptures by using numbers is known as
Gregory Flood's Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts. Etruscan counterparts of Roman gods and goddesses compiled by Gregory Flood.
Trade and economy in ancient China. Page 5.
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Despite repeated parental attempts to eat or hide their offspring, the birth of the Olympian gods and goddesses including Zeus and Hera followed the emergence of the titans Cronus and Rhea who sprang from Uranus the sky and Gaia the earth.
Latin tenses for Latin verbs in the Indicative.
A list of Roman gods and goddesses, compiled by Gregory Flood.
Ancient Greek government varied from place to place and time to time.
Here are the basic foods the ancient Egyptians ate.
Atlantis is a story from Plato's Timaeus.
A look at the possible identity of the Etruscans.
Dagon was the chief god of the Philistines and was also a corn god.
Veni, vidi, vici were the words Caesar used to succinctly convey his victory.
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
Etext of the Old Testament Book of Daniel.: nebuchadnezzar king of babylon king of judah ancient judaism land of shinar king of babylon
Glossary entry on polis, the ancient Greek city-state.
Learn these important points about Greek theater and especially Greek tragedy. Page 2.