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Ancient/Classical History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
The Right Ways to Use the Abbreviations i.e....
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
From Locusts to Boils, The 10 Plagues of Egypt
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
What Was Really inside Pandora's Box?
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
Major Gods and Goddesses of the World ...
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
Greek and Roman Gods Everyone Should Know
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
Top 10 Greek Heroes of Myth and Legend
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
Why Did Rome Fall?
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
The 10 Greatest Ancient Military Leaders
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
6 Fast Facts About Mesopotamia (Modern Iraq)
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq and an area that included various, changing nations in the ancient world.
Which Greek Goddess Are You?
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
What Were the 10 Plagues in the Bible?
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
A List of Ancient Sun Gods and Sun Goddesses
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
Profile of the Greek God Apollo
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
Learn About These Important Ancient Topics
Here are study guides on people and topics important for Ancient/Classical history.
The 88 Gods and Goddesses of War
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
Maps of the Levant
Maps showing an area of the eastern Mediterranean important in antiquity and known as the Levant.
Ancient China in Pictures
Trade and economy in ancient China. Page 5.
The Meaning Behind the Sword of Damocles
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
Classic Myths and Legends You Should Know
Myths and Legends the story of Cupid and Psyche. Page 4.
The Unusual Birth of the Goddess Athena
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
The Many Vital Contributions Ancient Greeks...
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
Reasons for the Fall of Rome
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
Which Greek Hero Are You?
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
What Happened When Rome Fell?
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
A Quick Summary on the Life and Times of Julius...
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
Hercules: The Basic Facts of the Major Greek...
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
Helen and Paris: Their Relationship Started the...
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
Do You Know Where Cleopatra Was Originally...
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
What Is the Fertile Crescent?
The Fertile Crescent is a name for a relatively fertile arc-shaped area by the Mediterranean which covers Biblical lands, the Tigris and Euphrates, and the Nile Valley.
What's the Difference Between the Greeks and...
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
What Did the Ancient Romans Eat?
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
The Life and Influence of Attila the Hun
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
A Quick Biography of Achilles
Achilles was considered the greatest Greek hero of the Trojan War.
12 Ancient Lunar Luminaries
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
Where Did the Greek God Hades Rule?
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
The Spartan King Who Led the 300
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
What Happened During the Shang Dynasty, and Why...
The Shang Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history with both archaeological and documentary (written centuries later) evidence.
How Did Hercules Die?
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
Is Ares Basically a B-List Greek God?
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
How Great Was Constantine?
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
The 12 Greek Gods You Should Know
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
13 Basic Facts About Alexander the Great
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
Sappho and Alcaeus - Lyric Poets From Lesbos
Sappho and Alcaeus, contemporaries from Lesbos, wrote lyric poetry.
The Roman Republic's 3 Branches of Government
The Roman Republican form of government had three branches.
The When and Where of Major Events in Ancient...
Time line of major events in the ancient history of the world. Most dates and events on the ancient history timeline are of political importance.
7 Points to Know About Ancient Greek Government
Ancient Greek government varied from place to place and time to time.
Most Beautiful Women
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
The Dramatic Life of Cleopatra, Egypt's Last...
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
What Are the 12 Tribes of Israel?
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
Learn 15 of the Most Important Deities in...
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
Who Are the 7 Archangels?
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
The 7 Romance Languages
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
How Important Was the Chorus to Greek Theater?
Learn these important points about Greek theater and especially Greek tragedy. Page 2.
The Family and Loves of the Greek God of the Sea
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
Demeter - By Her Brothers Betrayed
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
Aristotle's Take on Democracy
Aristotle argues that all forms of government have their problems, including, but not limited to democracy.
How Spartacus Led a Slave Revolt and Defied Rome
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
Facts You Probably Didn't Know About the Trojan...
A description of the sequence of major events of the Trojan War and Homer's 'Iliad', starting with the theft by Paris of Helen of Troy.
The Major Events of the Persian Wars
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
Here's Why These Are the Most Important People...
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
The Major Events of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom...
Old Kingdom Egypt was an important period of ancient Egyptian history made famous for the building of the Step Pyramid.
Latin Learners, Start With This Guide to Latin...
Latin tenses for Latin verbs in the Indicative.
What's the Role of Hades in Greek Mythology?
Information about the Greek god Hades who abducted Persephone and made her the queen of the Underworld.
The Life and Accomplishments of King Nebuchadne...
Nebuchadnezzar is best known for his Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world -- which he may not actually have created and the Captivity of the Hebrews.
Why Hera was not a Goddess to Mess With
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
13 Ancient Cultures, and the Gods They Worshipped
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
What's So Interesting about Deborah of the Old...
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
The Ancient Origins of the Swastika
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
Who Was Moses?
Moses, the recipient of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, and a Hebrew prophet, was the leader of the Hebrew people when they left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness during the Biblical Exodus.
Do You Know Where the Word 'Politics' Originated
Glossary entry on polis, the ancient Greek city-state.
Who Were the Etruscans?
A look at the possible identity of the Etruscans.
The Many, Many Wives of the Bible's King David
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
What We Know About Religion in Ancient...
The beginning of religion and the development of gods and goddesses in ancient Mesopotamian
Learn About the Third of the Great Tragedians
Euripides, a Greek writer of tragedy, introduced drama about love to Old Comedy. Third of the great Greek tragedians, Euripides was born c. 484 B.C. and died 406 B.C., possibly in Macedonia, although that may have been one of the many fanciful legends created about this controversial playwright.
What Do We Really Know About the Life and Work...
Learn what we think we know about the writer of one of the top three most popular books of all time.
The History Behind 'The 300'
Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
The Greek Alphabet, From Alpha to Omega
The letters of the Greek alphabet.
Beyond Russell Crowe: Everything You Need to...
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
Myths About Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love and...
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known as Venus in Rome and was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
4 Highlights in the Book of Ruth
Highlights of the Book of Ruth. Ancient / Classical History.
The Five Ages of Man
Among the creation myths of the Ancient Greeks is the story by Hesiod in his Works and Days about the five ages of man beginning with the Golden Age.
Why Dionysus Brought the Party with Him
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and ecstacy.
What Was the Charge Against Socrates?
What was the charge against Socrates for which he had to commit suicide by drinking a cup of hemlock?
Fast Facts About the Greek God Zeus
Fast facts about the Olympian god Zeus.
Do You Know the 9 Greek Muses?
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
Learn About the Dynasties of Ancient China
These are the dynasties of ancient China.
The 5 Worst Roman Emperors
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
15 Translations for Colors in Latin
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
Why Was the Peloponnesian War Fought?
A look at the causes and sequences of events leading up to the Peloponnesian War.
When Did the Most Famous Greek Philosophers Live?
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
The Seasons and Elements of the 4 Bodily Humors
Here is a look at the major terms connected with the Hippocratic method and especially the ancient medical use of the theory of the four humors.
A Look at Bathsheba and King David's Romance
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
What's Behind the Ancient Acronym SPQR?
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
What's So Interesting about the Greek God Cronos?
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
Why Was Hadrian's Wall Built?
The Roman Emperor Hadrian started to build what became known as Hadrian's Wall to keep the 'barbarian' Picts from Scotland out of Roman Britain.
How Democracy Helped Solve Ancient Greek Problems
Democracy Then and Now. A look at the meaning of the word democracy in ancient politics as contrasted with what we mean by democracy today.
The 6 Major Greek Goddesses
List of the major Greek goddesses in Greek mythology.
Learn the Real Meaning Behind these Famous...
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
10 Important Early Greek Philosophers
Chronological list of ten of the most important early Greek philosophers.
Who Was Pericles (And Why Is There an Age Named...
Pericles was the leader of Athens at the time of the building of the Parthenon and the Peloponnesian War.
Myths Featuring the Great Titan Prometheus
If it weren't for Prometheus, we wouldn't be here. Learn why.
Who's Who: Babylonian Gods and Goddesses
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
Odysseus
Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, came up with the idea of the wooden horse and returned home by an adventure-filled circuitous route that took ten years.
Cases of Latin Nouns
These are the main uses of the 7 cases of Latin nouns.
Meet Justinian, the Last Great Roman Emperor
Justinian was a Roman or Byzantine Emperor.
What Did Ancient Egyptians Eat?
Here are the basic foods the ancient Egyptians ate.
5 Good Reasons to Study Latin
Do you know why your kids should learn Latin? Here are some of the advantages your children will enjoy if they study Latin.
Which Was the World's First Empire?
Answer to the question, Ancient / Classical History.
A Guide to Norse Mythology
Background information on Norse mythology. This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
See Art Based on the Odyssey
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast.
187 Aristotle Quotes on Living Well
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
How Tall Was the Great Pyramid?
The tallest of a cluster of three pyramids at Giza, the Great Pyramid has lost some height over the millennia due to erosion. How tall was it originally?
Learn About Persia's Great Empire Building King...
King Darius I, an Achaemenid dynasty king, ruled the Persians.
What Was the Babylonian King Hammurabi?
King Hammurabi of Babylonia was an important Babylonian king known for his early law code, the Code of Hammurabi.
Percy Jackson and Greek Mythology
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A Helmet, an Olive ... What Are Athena's Other...
A listing of Athena's symbols. Ancient / Classical History.
How to Write Greek Letters With HTML
If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
A Profile of Xerxes the Great, King of the...
Xerxes was a king of the Medes and Persians, who fought against the Ancient Greeks in the Persian Wars.
What's So Interesting about the Roman Goddess...
Aspects of the goddess of love, the goddess Venus, the Roman Aphrodite.
Why You Should Beware the Ides of March (Or Not)
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
Get to Know the First Chinese Dynasty: Xia...
The Xia Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history.
Top 9 Love Goddesses
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
A Timeline for the Fall of Rome
A timeline showing a chronological list of only major events leading to the fall of Rome.
Toga, Toga! 5 Facts About Ancient Greek Clothing
Five facts about ancient Greco-Roman clothing.
A Quick History on the Nymphs of Greek Mythology
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
Who Was Paul of Tarsus?
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
Here's Why Mt. Vesuvius is the World's Most...
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Who Were Hercules' Parents?
Who were the parents of Hercules?
Discover the Two Types of Titans in Greek...
Learn about the two generations of the enormous mythological creatures known as Titans.
Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts
Gregory Flood's Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts. Etruscan counterparts of Roman gods and goddesses compiled by Gregory Flood.
What Are the Months in the Jewish Calendar?
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
5 Accomplishments of Julius Caesar
Read about five of the deeds and accomplishments of the great Julius Caesar.
The Growth of Rome
An introductory look at the growth of Rome, how Rome expanded its power to become master of Italy.
Beans Appeased the Dead
During the Lemuria, Romans appeased the dead with beans.
The Life and Legacy of Aristotle
Basics on the Greek philosopher Aristotle whose influence was felt not just in the ancient world, but the Middle Ages, and so became part of modern systems, especially in logic and science.
When Was the Neolithic Period?
The era called Neolithic is also called the new stone age.
5 Fast Facts About the Olympian God, Hermes
Fast facts about the Olympian god Hermes.
The Early Kings of Rome
The names and dates of the legendary kings of Rome.
What Was the Role of Perseus in Greek Mythology?
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
What Was Life Like During the Pax Romana?
Pax Romana is Latin for Roman peace.
The Sky God, Zeus
Zeus is the name of the Greek king of the Gods, the equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter, a sky god.
How Did Ancient Romans Keep Clean?
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
Moses: The Baby in the Basket
As a baby, Moses wasn't exposed, but he was stuck in a basket and set adrift amid the bulrushes. Read why and what happened next.
What Are the Exodus Passages Listing the 10...
These are the 10 Commandments from the King James Version of the book of Exodus chapter 20, along with some comparisons to other versions.
3 Myths Featuring Hades, the God of the...
Myths about the Greek god Hades involving Heracles (Hercules), Persephone, and Theseus.
Who Was Agamemnon?
Description of the Greek leader of the Trojan War, Agamemnon.
Hermes Greek God
Information on Hermes, the Greek god.
Ancient Queens
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.
Who Said 'The Face That Launched a Thousand...
: Where does the expression "The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships" come from? : The face that launched
What are the 3 Geographical Regions of Greece?
Basic information on the geography of ancient Greece.

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