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Ancient/Classical History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
Why You Should Beware the Ides of March (Or Not)
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
The Right Ways to Use the Abbreviations i.e....
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
From Locusts to Boils, The 10 Plagues of Egypt
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
Top 10 Greek Heroes of Myth and Legend
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
What Was Really inside Pandora's Box?
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
Major Gods and Goddesses of the World ...
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
The Meaning Behind the Sword of Damocles
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
Why Did Rome Fall?
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
Greek and Roman Gods Everyone Should Know
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
A Quick Summary on the Life and Times of Julius...
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
A List of Ancient Sun Gods and Sun Goddesses
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
What's the Difference Between the Greeks and...
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
The Life and Influence of Attila the Hun
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
Which Greek Hero Are You?
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
Classic Myths and Legends You Should Know
Myths and Legends the story of Cupid and Psyche. Page 4.
5 Accomplishments of Julius Caesar
Read about five of the deeds and accomplishments of the great Julius Caesar.
Which Greek Goddess Are You?
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
The 88 Gods and Goddesses of War
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
How Spartacus Led a Slave Revolt and Defied Rome
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
Hercules: The Basic Facts of the Major Greek...
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
How Did Hercules Die?
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
What Did the Ancient Romans Eat?
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
15 Translations for Colors in Latin
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
What's So Interesting about Deborah of the Old...
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
Is Ares Basically a B-List Greek God?
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
Ancient China in Pictures
Trade and economy in ancient China. Page 5.
What Are the Exodus Passages Listing the 10...
These are the 10 Commandments from the King James Version of the book of Exodus chapter 20, along with some comparisons to other versions.
Here's Why Mt. Vesuvius is the World's Most...
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
What's Behind the Ancient Acronym SPQR?
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
13 Basic Facts About Alexander the Great
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
The Many, Many Wives of the Bible's King David
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
Profile of the Greek God Apollo
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
The Many Vital Contributions Ancient Greeks...
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
The Dramatic Life of Cleopatra, Egypt's Last...
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
See Art Based on the Odyssey
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast.
Here's Why These Are the Most Important People...
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
The Spartan King Who Led the 300
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
Do You Know Where Cleopatra Was Originally...
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
How Important Was the Chorus to Greek Theater?
Learn these important points about Greek theater and especially Greek tragedy. Page 2.
Learn 15 of the Most Important Deities in...
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
The Roman Republic's 3 Branches of Government
The Roman Republican form of government had three branches.
The Unusual Birth of the Goddess Athena
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
Why Was the Peloponnesian War Fought?
A look at the causes and sequences of events leading up to the Peloponnesian War.
13 Ancient Cultures, and the Gods They Worshipped
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
Where Did the Greek God Hades Rule?
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
Who Were Hercules' Parents?
Who were the parents of Hercules?
What Happened During the Shang Dynasty, and Why...
The Shang Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history with both archaeological and documentary (written centuries later) evidence.
The 5 Worst Roman Emperors
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
12 Ancient Lunar Luminaries
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
Most Beautiful Women
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
Reasons for the Fall of Rome
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
Whip It Real Good
There were far more than fifty shades of kink in antiquity. Check out how to get sexy like the ancients.
Get to Know the First Chinese Dynasty: Xia...
The Xia Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history.
The Major Events of the Persian Wars
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
Meet Justinian, the Last Great Roman Emperor
Justinian was a Roman or Byzantine Emperor.
Who Was Paul of Tarsus?
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
Who Are the 7 Archangels?
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
Learn the Real Meaning Behind these Famous...
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
What Was the Role of Perseus in Greek Mythology?
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
Battle of Marathon: Winners, Losers, and a...
Battle of Marathon in the Persian Wars 490 was an important moment for the victorious Athenians, renowned today more for a legendary marathon runner than the battle itself.
Toga, Toga! 5 Facts About Ancient Greek Clothing
Five facts about ancient Greco-Roman clothing.
A Guide to Norse Mythology
Background information on Norse mythology. This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
A Timeline for the Fall of Rome
A timeline showing a chronological list of only major events leading to the fall of Rome.
The Life and Career of Pompey the Great
Information on Caesar's contemporary and opponent, Pompey, the Roman military leader who quelled the pirate menace and was named the great after the Mithridatic Wars.
What Were the 10 Plagues in the Bible?
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
Who Were the Etruscans?
A look at the possible identity of the Etruscans.
Who's Who: Babylonian Gods and Goddesses
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
Why Dionysus Brought the Party with Him
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and ecstacy.
Demeter - By Her Brothers Betrayed
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
The 10 Greatest Ancient Military Leaders
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
What Happened When Rome Fell?
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
A Profile of Cincinnatus, Leader of the Roman...
Profile of the Roman Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus.
What Did Ancient Egyptians Eat?
Here are the basic foods the ancient Egyptians ate.
Who Said 'The Face That Launched a Thousand...
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13 Important Events in the Life of Alexander...
Want to check which battle Alexander first fought in -- Chaeronea or Granicus or what year he became the leader of the Macedonians? This short timeline shows such events at a glance: A timeline of major events in the life of Alexander the Great.
What's the Significance of Biblical Hebrew Names?
It's important to know the meaning and significance of Biblical and Hebrew names before you give one to your child. Here are resources especially for people in the process of finding a name for their newborn.
What's the Role of Hades in Greek Mythology?
Information about the Greek god Hades who abducted Persephone and made her the queen of the Underworld.
The Family and Loves of the Greek God of the Sea
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
What Are the Months in the Jewish Calendar?
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
Beyond Russell Crowe: Everything You Need to...
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
Why Hera was not a Goddess to Mess With
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
Decide for Yourself: Is Atlantis Real or Fiction?
Atlantis is a story from Plato's Timaeus.
How Great Was Constantine?
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
What's So Interesting about the Roman Goddess...
Aspects of the goddess of love, the goddess Venus, the Roman Aphrodite.
The Five Ages of Man
Among the creation myths of the Ancient Greeks is the story by Hesiod in his Works and Days about the five ages of man beginning with the Golden Age.
A Quick History on the Nymphs of Greek Mythology
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
Table of the Roman Equivalents of Greek Gods-...
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods
Do You Know the 9 Greek Muses?
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
Facts You Probably Didn't Know About the Trojan...
A description of the sequence of major events of the Trojan War and Homer's 'Iliad', starting with the theft by Paris of Helen of Troy.
6 Fast Facts About Mesopotamia (Modern Iraq)
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq and an area that included various, changing nations in the ancient world.
The Seasons and Elements of the 4 Bodily Humors
Here is a look at the major terms connected with the Hippocratic method and especially the ancient medical use of the theory of the four humors.
Learn About the Dynasties of Ancient China
These are the dynasties of ancient China.
Latin Learners, Start With This Guide to Latin...
Latin tenses for Latin verbs in the Indicative.
Helen and Paris: Their Relationship Started the...
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
How Did Jews Live During Jesus' Time?
Understanding how the Jews lived in Jesus' time requires reading the New Testament within the context of first-century Judaism and the Roman Empire. Biblical texts hold clues to the influences on Judaism of its religious heritage and Roman occupation.
The When and Where of Major Events in Ancient...
Time line of major events in the ancient history of the world. Most dates and events on the ancient history timeline are of political importance.
The 3 Possible Ways a Gladiator Fight Could End
The editor of a gladiatorial match decided who lived and who died in the arena, although he usually paid some attention to the cries of the crowds and the gestures for mercy of the gladiators.
Veni, Vidi, Vici
Veni, vidi, vici were the words Caesar used to succinctly convey his victory.
The 12 Greek Gods You Should Know
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
A Look at Bathsheba and King David's Romance
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
Why Was Hannibal, Rome's Biggest Enemy,...
Hannibal (Hannibal Barca) was the military leader of Carthage in the Second Punic War.
What Was the World Like During the Roman...
Roman culture includes its architecture and technology, entertainment system, which includes gladiators and Roman theater, its literature, medicine, religion and myth, and philosophy.
The History Behind 'The 300'
Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
What Are the 12 Tribes of Israel?
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
Discover the Code-Breaking History of the...
The key to understanding Egyptian hieroglyphs was the Rosetta Stone.
What Was Life Like During the Pax Romana?
Pax Romana is Latin for Roman peace.
How Tall Was the Great Pyramid?
The tallest of a cluster of three pyramids at Giza, the Great Pyramid has lost some height over the millennia due to erosion. How tall was it originally?
Fast Facts About the Greek God Zeus
Fast facts about the Olympian god Zeus.
The Growth of Rome
An introductory look at the growth of Rome, how Rome expanded its power to become master of Italy.
10 Important Norse Gods and Goddesses
Short notes on individual Norse gods and goddesses in Norse mythology.
Who Was Ashoka the Great?
Ashoka was an important Buddhist king in India in the 3rd century B.C.
Myths About Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love and...
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known as Venus in Rome and was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
A Helmet, an Olive ... What Are Athena's Other...
A listing of Athena's symbols. Ancient / Classical History.
How Did Ancient Romans Keep Clean?
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
Celtic Gods and Goddesses
A list of major Celtic gods and goddesses.
How to Write Greek Letters With HTML
If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
3 Myths Featuring Hades, the God of the...
Myths about the Greek god Hades involving Heracles (Hercules), Persephone, and Theseus.
Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts
Gregory Flood's Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts. Etruscan counterparts of Roman gods and goddesses compiled by Gregory Flood.
The 7 Romance Languages
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
The Legend of Romulus and the Founding of Rome
Romulus was the first of the seven Roman kings and the founder of the city of Rome.
Discover the Weapons Used by Gladiators
A list of the armor and weapons the gladiators used for fighting.
Was Cleopatra Really as Beautiful as They Say?
The name Cleopatra Queen of Egypt has often been used to mean a seductive, beautiful woman, but Cleopatra may not have been beautiful at all.
Discover the Two Types of Titans in Greek...
Learn about the two generations of the enormous mythological creatures known as Titans.
Cases of Latin Nouns
These are the main uses of the 7 cases of Latin nouns.
What Do We Really Know About the Life and Work...
Learn what we think we know about the writer of one of the top three most popular books of all time.
A Profile of the Roman Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius, the second emperor of Rome, was not flashy or charismatic enough to overcome either his sensible domestic policy or his gossip-filled seclusion from public life.
Odyssey Book VII Quiz
Odyssey Book VII Quiz Sorry, but this quiz requires that you have javascript turned on. Please turn javascript
187 Aristotle Quotes on Living Well
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
What Was the Charge Against Socrates?
What was the charge against Socrates for which he had to commit suicide by drinking a cup of hemlock?
Moses: The Baby in the Basket
As a baby, Moses wasn't exposed, but he was stuck in a basket and set adrift amid the bulrushes. Read why and what happened next.
Chinese Footbinding
An explanation of Chinese footbinding, an archaic rather than ancient practice thought to enhance the allure of Han Chinese girls.
Who Was Pericles (And Why Is There an Age Named...
Pericles was the leader of Athens at the time of the building of the Parthenon and the Peloponnesian War.
The Greek Alphabet, From Alpha to Omega
The letters of the Greek alphabet.
The Ancient Origins of the Swastika
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
7 Points to Know About Ancient Greek Government
Ancient Greek government varied from place to place and time to time.
Why the Death of Attila the Hun Is Such a Mystery
There are so many mysteries of ancient history and the cause of the death of Attila is just one of them.
Ancient History: How Abigail Helped King David
Most scholars think of Abigail as King David's wisest wife. By deflecting David's anger toward her first husband, Nabal, for refusing to give David and his men supplies, Abigail both saved her own household and kept David from a serious tactical error of murdering Nabal. Captivated by her beauty and wisdom, David wastes no time in marrying Abigail when her first husband dies. Abigail and David shared many characteristics that made Abigail the comrade that David needed for success.
What's So Interesting about the Greek God Cronos?
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
The Death of Balder
The death of the Norse god Balder and the punishment of Loki.
6 Mayan Gods and Goddesses
An index of Maya gods and goddesses.
Is 'First Do No Harm' Really Part of the...
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When Did the Most Famous Greek Philosophers Live?
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
The Sky God, Zeus
Zeus is the name of the Greek king of the Gods, the equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter, a sky god.
Ulysses
Ulysses spends 10 years trying to get back home to Ithaca after the Greeks win the Trojan War.
Aristotle's Take on Democracy
Aristotle argues that all forms of government have their problems, including, but not limited to democracy.
Learn About the Third of the Great Tragedians
Euripides, a Greek writer of tragedy, introduced drama about love to Old Comedy. Third of the great Greek tragedians, Euripides was born c. 484 B.C. and died 406 B.C., possibly in Macedonia, although that may have been one of the many fanciful legends created about this controversial playwright.
Latin Days of the Week
The Latin names for the days of the week.
Top 9 Love Goddesses
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
Deucalion and Pyrrha
The story of Deucalion and Pyrrha is the flood myth of Greek mythology.
4 Highlights in the Book of Ruth
Highlights of the Book of Ruth. Ancient / Classical History.

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