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Ancient/Classical History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
Top 10 Greek Heroes of Myth and Legend
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
The Right Ways to Use the Abbreviations i.e....
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
From Locusts to Boils, The 10 Plagues of Egypt
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
What Was Really inside Pandora's Box?
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
Major Gods and Goddesses of the World ...
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
Greek and Roman Gods Everyone Should Know
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
Why Did Rome Fall?
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
How Did Hercules Die?
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
What's the Difference Between the Greeks and...
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
A List of Ancient Sun Gods and Sun Goddesses
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
Which Greek Goddess Are You?
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
The 88 Gods and Goddesses of War
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
Classic Myths and Legends You Should Know
Myths and Legends the story of Cupid and Psyche. Page 4.
The Meaning Behind the Sword of Damocles
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
The Fantasy and Folklore of Halloween
Celtic beliefs about the holiday of Samhain or Halloween
Hercules: The Basic Facts of the Major Greek...
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
Which Greek Hero Are You?
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
A Quick Summary on the Life and Times of Julius...
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
Reasons for the Fall of Rome
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
5 Accomplishments of Julius Caesar
Read about five of the deeds and accomplishments of the great Julius Caesar.
The Life and Influence of Attila the Hun
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
The Unusual Birth of the Goddess Athena
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
What Did the Ancient Romans Eat?
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
What's Behind the Ancient Acronym SPQR?
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
The Dramatic Life of Cleopatra, Egypt's Last...
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
Profile of the Greek God Apollo
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
The Roman Republic's 3 Branches of Government
The Roman Republican form of government had three branches.
How Great Was Constantine?
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
Learn 15 of the Most Important Deities in...
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
Do You Know Where Cleopatra Was Originally...
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
Why Was the Peloponnesian War Fought?
A look at the causes and sequences of events leading up to the Peloponnesian War.
Where Did the Greek God Hades Rule?
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
6 Fast Facts About Mesopotamia (Modern Iraq)
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq and an area that included various, changing nations in the ancient world.
What Were the 10 Plagues in the Bible?
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
Ancient China in Pictures
Trade and economy in ancient China. Page 5.
The Spartan King Who Led the 300
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
What's So Interesting about Deborah of the Old...
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
Is Ares Basically a B-List Greek God?
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
12 Ancient Lunar Luminaries
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
Who Were Hercules' Parents?
Who were the parents of Hercules?
Most Beautiful Women
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
Learn About These Important Ancient Topics
Here are study guides on people and topics important for Ancient/Classical history.
The 5 Worst Roman Emperors
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
Who Were the Etruscans?
A look at the possible identity of the Etruscans.
The Many, Many Wives of the Bible's King David
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
13 Basic Facts About Alexander the Great
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
The Many Vital Contributions Ancient Greeks...
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
Who Was Moses?
Moses, the recipient of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, and a Hebrew prophet, was the leader of the Hebrew people when they left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness during the Biblical Exodus.
What's the Role of Hades in Greek Mythology?
Information about the Greek god Hades who abducted Persephone and made her the queen of the Underworld.
Beyond Russell Crowe: Everything You Need to...
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
15 Translations for Colors in Latin
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
How Tall Was the Great Pyramid?
The tallest of a cluster of three pyramids at Giza, the Great Pyramid has lost some height over the millennia due to erosion. How tall was it originally?
What Happened When Rome Fell?
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
The Major Events of the Persian Wars
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
Who Was Paul of Tarsus?
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
13 Ancient Cultures, and the Gods They Worshipped
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
Model Your Greek Costumes for Women on Ancient...
Ancient Greek women wore clothing that is simple to construct -- once the weaving is done.
Diwali
Diwali is a Hindu harvest-related festival of lights.
Facts You Probably Didn't Know About the Trojan...
A description of the sequence of major events of the Trojan War and Homer's 'Iliad', starting with the theft by Paris of Helen of Troy.
Here's Why These Are the Most Important People...
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
The Family and Loves of the Greek God of the Sea
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
Why Do We Have Soul Mates? Read Aristophanes'...
In Plato's Symposium, Aristophanes' contribution to the discussion of love is to tell the story of the creation of lesbians, gays, and heterosexuals.
Meet Justinian, the Last Great Roman Emperor
Justinian was a Roman or Byzantine Emperor.
See Art Based on the Odyssey
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast.
The Ancient Origins of the Swastika
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
What Was the Role of Perseus in Greek Mythology?
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
What Was the Babylonian King Hammurabi?
King Hammurabi of Babylonia was an important Babylonian king known for his early law code, the Code of Hammurabi.
What Did Ancient Egyptians Eat?
Here are the basic foods the ancient Egyptians ate.
A Timeline for the Fall of Rome
A timeline showing a chronological list of only major events leading to the fall of Rome.
The 12 Greek Gods You Should Know
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
Why Hera was not a Goddess to Mess With
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
A Guide to Norse Mythology
Background information on Norse mythology. This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
What Do We Really Know About the Life and Work...
Learn what we think we know about the writer of one of the top three most popular books of all time.
The 10 Greatest Ancient Military Leaders
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
Who Are the 7 Archangels?
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
What Are the Exodus Passages Listing the 10...
These are the 10 Commandments from the King James Version of the book of Exodus chapter 20, along with some comparisons to other versions.
7 Points to Know About Ancient Greek Government
Ancient Greek government varied from place to place and time to time.
A Quick History on the Nymphs of Greek Mythology
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
Latin Learners, Start With This Guide to Latin...
Latin tenses for Latin verbs in the Indicative.
Do You Know the 9 Greek Muses?
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
Fast Facts About the Greek God Zeus
Fast facts about the Olympian god Zeus.
The Life and Accomplishments of King Nebuchadne...
Nebuchadnezzar is best known for his Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world -- which he may not actually have created and the Captivity of the Hebrews.
A Profile of the Roman Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius, the second emperor of Rome, was not flashy or charismatic enough to overcome either his sensible domestic policy or his gossip-filled seclusion from public life.
How Spartacus Led a Slave Revolt and Defied Rome
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
The History Behind 'The 300'
Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
Was Cleopatra Really as Beautiful as They Say?
The name Cleopatra Queen of Egypt has often been used to mean a seductive, beautiful woman, but Cleopatra may not have been beautiful at all.
The Growth of Rome
An introductory look at the growth of Rome, how Rome expanded its power to become master of Italy.
Myths About Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love and...
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known as Venus in Rome and was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
How Important Was the Chorus to Greek Theater?
Learn these important points about Greek theater and especially Greek tragedy. Page 2.
How Taxes Led to the Fall of Rome
Rome fell or changed partly as a result of economic policies of the Roman emperors.
Why Dionysus Brought the Party with Him
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and ecstacy.
What's So Interesting about the Greek God Cronos?
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
Do You Know Where the Word 'Politics' Originated
Glossary entry on polis, the ancient Greek city-state.
4 Highlights in the Book of Ruth
Highlights of the Book of Ruth. Ancient / Classical History.
5 Fast Facts About the Olympian God, Hermes
Fast facts about the Olympian god Hermes.
Demeter - By Her Brothers Betrayed
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
Here's Why Mt. Vesuvius is the World's Most...
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
What Happened During the Shang Dynasty, and Why...
The Shang Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history with both archaeological and documentary (written centuries later) evidence.
The Life and Career of Pompey the Great
Information on Caesar's contemporary and opponent, Pompey, the Roman military leader who quelled the pirate menace and was named the great after the Mithridatic Wars.
A Look at Bathsheba and King David's Romance
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
Learn About the Third of the Great Tragedians
Euripides, a Greek writer of tragedy, introduced drama about love to Old Comedy. Third of the great Greek tragedians, Euripides was born c. 484 B.C. and died 406 B.C., possibly in Macedonia, although that may have been one of the many fanciful legends created about this controversial playwright.
Who's Who: Babylonian Gods and Goddesses
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
Helen and Paris: Their Relationship Started the...
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
The Odyssey's Real Ending
Did Odysseus and Penelope live happily ever after? As secret love children and father-killers emerge, dive into the real story of the Odyssey!
What's So Interesting about the Roman Goddess...
Aspects of the goddess of love, the goddess Venus, the Roman Aphrodite.
Learn the Real Meaning Behind these Famous...
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
What Is the Fertile Crescent?
The Fertile Crescent is a name for a relatively fertile arc-shaped area by the Mediterranean which covers Biblical lands, the Tigris and Euphrates, and the Nile Valley.
Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts
Gregory Flood's Etruscan Gods and Their Roman Counterparts. Etruscan counterparts of Roman gods and goddesses compiled by Gregory Flood.
When Did the Most Famous Greek Philosophers Live?
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
Toga, Toga! 5 Facts About Ancient Greek Clothing
Five facts about ancient Greco-Roman clothing.
Rancid Rulers: Which Emperors to Avoid in the...
Which emperors should you avoid at all costs, especially when soaking in the bathhouse? Tiberius, Galba, Commodus, Caracalla, and Nero!
The Rise and Fall of Julius Caesar's Political...
Julius Caesar and his rise to power in the Roman Republic and the relationship between Caesar and Sulla. Also, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus as the First Triumvirate.
Myths Featuring the Great Titan Prometheus
If it weren't for Prometheus, we wouldn't be here. Learn why.
Discover the Code-Breaking History of the...
The key to understanding Egyptian hieroglyphs was the Rosetta Stone.
What Are the Months in the Jewish Calendar?
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
Table of the Roman Equivalents of Greek Gods-...
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods
Learn About the Dynasties of Ancient China
These are the dynasties of ancient China.
The 7 Romance Languages
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
What Are the 12 Tribes of Israel?
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
What Was the World Like During the Roman...
Roman culture includes its architecture and technology, entertainment system, which includes gladiators and Roman theater, its literature, medicine, religion and myth, and philosophy.
How Did Ancient Romans Keep Clean?
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
Is 'First Do No Harm' Really Part of the...
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How to Write Greek Letters With HTML
If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
The 3 Possible Ways a Gladiator Fight Could End
The editor of a gladiatorial match decided who lived and who died in the arena, although he usually paid some attention to the cries of the crowds and the gestures for mercy of the gladiators.
187 Aristotle Quotes on Living Well
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
A Quick Biography of Achilles
Achilles was considered the greatest Greek hero of the Trojan War.
Who Was Pericles (And Why Is There an Age Named...
Pericles was the leader of Athens at the time of the building of the Parthenon and the Peloponnesian War.
Why You Should Beware the Ides of March (Or Not)
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
13 Important Events in the Life of Alexander...
Want to check which battle Alexander first fought in -- Chaeronea or Granicus or what year he became the leader of the Macedonians? This short timeline shows such events at a glance: A timeline of major events in the life of Alexander the Great.
Ancient Queens
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history. Page 2 of 7.
What We Know About Religion in Ancient...
The beginning of religion and the development of gods and goddesses in ancient Mesopotamian
Aristotle's Take on Democracy
Aristotle argues that all forms of government have their problems, including, but not limited to democracy.
How Democracy Helped Solve Ancient Greek Problems
Democracy Then and Now. A look at the meaning of the word democracy in ancient politics as contrasted with what we mean by democracy today.
How the Gracchi Brothers Tried to Change...
The Gracchi Brothers - Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchu
Top 9 Love Goddesses
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
Why Was Hannibal, Rome's Biggest Enemy,...
Hannibal (Hannibal Barca) was the military leader of Carthage in the Second Punic War.
Tigris
Facts and information on the Tigris River, one of the two main rivers of the ancient city Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
Percy Jackson and Greek Mythology
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Get to Know the First Chinese Dynasty: Xia...
The Xia Dynasty of ancient China was the first dynasty in Chinese history.
Learn About the Egyptian God Anubis
Anubis - Egyptian God Anubis. Ancient / Classical History.
The 6 Major Greek Goddesses
List of the major Greek goddesses in Greek mythology.
Odysseus
Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, came up with the idea of the wooden horse and returned home by an adventure-filled circuitous route that took ten years.
What's the Significance of Biblical Hebrew Names?
It's important to know the meaning and significance of Biblical and Hebrew names before you give one to your child. Here are resources especially for people in the process of finding a name for their newborn.
Learn About Those Round One-Eyed Monsters
Learn about the Greek mythological origins of the term cyclops.
The When and Where of Major Events in Ancient...
Time line of major events in the ancient history of the world. Most dates and events on the ancient history timeline are of political importance.
10 Pivotal Greek Myths
They don't make hero stories like these anymore. Read up on Trojan War heroes and other Greeks who successfully battled impossible odds.
A Profile of Xerxes the Great, King of the...
Xerxes was a king of the Medes and Persians, who fought against the Ancient Greeks in the Persian Wars.
The Seasons and Elements of the 4 Bodily Humors
Here is a look at the major terms connected with the Hippocratic method and especially the ancient medical use of the theory of the four humors.
How Did Jews Live During Jesus' Time?
Understanding how the Jews lived in Jesus' time requires reading the New Testament within the context of first-century Judaism and the Roman Empire. Biblical texts hold clues to the influences on Judaism of its religious heritage and Roman occupation.
Celtic Gods and Goddesses
A list of major Celtic gods and goddesses.
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