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Ancient / Classical History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
From Locusts to Boils, The 10 Plagues of Egypt
List of the ten plagues of Egypt.
Major Gods and Goddesses of the World ...
Learn about the world's major gods and goddesses of love, war, childbirth, food, music, mischief, and all sorts of human-seeming foibles.
The Right Ways to Use the Abbreviations i.e....
When do you use the common abbreviations i.e., and when do you use e.g., and what do they mean?
Greek and Roman Gods Everyone Should Know
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods and goddesses.
Top 10 Greek Heroes of Myth and Legend
Here are the major heroes of Greek legend. Two of them (Odysseus and Achilles) are from the Trojan War. The others were involved in adventures.
Which Greek Goddess Are You?
Which Greek Goddess Are You? Take this quiz to determine if you're a goddess of love or war or something
Which Greek Hero Are You?
Take this little quiz to see which major ancient hero you are most like. Just don't take it too seriously.
Who Was Paul of Tarsus?
Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus.
What Was Really inside Pandora's Box?
A brief version of the story of Pandora's Box
When and Why Did Rome Fall?
Read about some of the reasons for the Fall of Rome (or the decline of the Roman Empire) and the rationale behind the dates. There are many theories for the fall, some more, some less reasonable. You get to judge which is the best.
Sun Gods and Sun Goddesses
A list of the sun gods from various ancient religions.
What Were the 10 Plagues in the Bible?
Learn the context of the famous 10 plagues in Egypt that led to the Biblical Exodus.
The Eostre Hares and Pagan Easter
There are ancient traditions that may explain why we associate an Easter bunny with with Easter a holiday whose name, at least, we seem to have borrowed from Eostre, a Celtic goddess.
Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate has come down in history because of his role in the execution of Jesus.
War Gods and Goddesses
A list of war gods and goddesses from the mythology of the world.
The Spartan King Who Led the 300
Leonidas was a king of Sparta who led a suicide mission against the Persians at Thermopylae during the Persian Wars.
The 10 Greatest Ancient Military Leaders
List of the greatest warriors in the ancient world.
Top 9 Love Goddesses
Here are the top fertility and love goddesses of ancient mythology.
Who Was Moses?
Moses, the recipient of the Ten Commandments in the Bible, and a Hebrew prophet, was the leader of the Hebrew people when they left Egypt and wandered in the wilderness during the Biblical Exodus.
How Great Was Constantine?
Constantine the Great of Constantine I was the first Christian emperor of the the Roman Empire.
What Is the Sword of Damocles?
The Sword of Damocles was described by the Roman orator Cicero in his 'Tusculan Disputations'. Here's my explanation of the proverbial expression.
The Many Wives of David in the Bible
The many wives of King David in the Bible played important roles in the history of Israel. Through their relationships, David's wives brought him political alliances and material wealth, as well as 19 sons and one daughter. Three of David's wives were especially significant to Israel's history. They are Michal, Abigail and Bathsheba.
Ares - Greek God Ares
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.
Reasons for the Fall of Rome
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.
The Book of Ruth Features a Loyal Heroine
Highlights of the Book of Ruth. Ancient / Classical History.
What Are the Months in the Jewish Calendar?
Jewish months of the Hebrew calendar based on Babylonian month names.
How many of these moon goddesses and gods do...
Gods and goddess of the moons came in male and female forms. An alphabetical list of deities or personifications of the moon.
Hercules: The Basic Facts of the Major Greek...
Hercules is such a popular figure from Greek mythology that you have undoubtedly heard of him or seen him in movies or on the television. If you want to know the basic facts and events of his life, here is the basic information the media uses to portray the demigod.
Apollo
Learn about Apollo, a very popular Greek and Roman god, his passions, gifts to mankind, and association with the sun. Also learn about Apollo's application in modern culture.
What Are the 12 Tribes of Israel?
What are the 12 tribes of Israel?
Profile of the Greek Goddess Athena
Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom also known as Pallas Athena. In ancient Rome, Athena was known as the Roman goddess Minerva.
Classic Myths and Legends You Should Know
Myths and Legends the story of Cupid and Psyche. Page 4.
12 Julius Caesar Facts
Learn a dozen important facts about Julius Caesar. Page 2.
What's So Interesting about Deborah of the Old...
A look at how the Bible portrays Deborah as a wise and courageous judge of Israel.
What Did the Ancient Romans Eat?
Do you think the Romans were the original bulimics with a vomitorium in every household? It may surprise you to learn most Romans ate modestly. Learn more about the Romans' foods and their diet.
Dating Easter
Dating Easter. The dates for Easter do not correspond with the dates of the Jewish Passover.
Poseidon
Poseidon is a Greek god of the sea.
How Did Hercules Die?
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.
Aphrodite - Greek Goddess of Love and Beauty
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was known Venus in Rome was a major goddess in ancient Greek mythology and in the Roman Vergil's Aeneid.
How Spartacus Led a Slave Revolt and Defied Rome
The revolt of the slaves led by Spartacus the gladiator put a strain on Rome, but built up the heroic legend about its leader. Learn about the Roman failed attempts to stop the revolt and what actually led to Spartacus' downfall.
What Is the Origin of the Swastika
Read about the possible origins of an ancient symbol, the swastika.
The Moses Basket or The Story of Moses in the...
As a baby, Moses wasn't exposed, but he was stuck in a basket and set adrift amid the bulrushes. Read why and what happened next.
What's Behind the 300
Date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Thermopylae at which the Spartans, under Leonidas, fought bravely to their death.
The Myth of the Founding of Rome
Read about the myths and legends about the founding of Rome, the possible answers to the questions of who founded it and when Rome was founded.
Cleopatra
Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt was an historical queen and last pharaoh of Egypt whose story has been retold in countless stories, plays, and movies.
15 Translations for Colors in Latin
Words for colors in Latin. Ancient / Classical History.
Here's Why These Are the Most Important People...
Here are my selections for the most important names in ancient history. This list excludes people whose existence is disputed by most classical scholars.
The Greek Gods You Should Know
Basic information on the Olympians of Greek Mythology.
List of Gods and Goddesses by Culture
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.
Who Are the 7 Archangels?
The names of the seven archangels vary somewhat.
88 More Ehical Quotes From Aristotle
A list of Aristotle quotes. Quotations attributed to Aristotle.
13 Basic Facts About Alexander the Great
Thirteen facts to know about Alexander the Great. Page 2.
Who Were the Gods and Goddesses of Roman...
A list of Roman gods and goddesses, compiled by Gregory Flood.
Hades - Greek God of the Underworld
Hades is the Greek god of the Underworld.
The Many Vital Contributions Ancient Greeks...
Read about the important inventions attributed to early Greek scientists. This list is in chronological order.
Bathsheba and David - Bathsheba Was King...
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor.
Beyond Russell Crowe: Everything You Need to...
Fighting in the arena for the entertainment of the population of the Roman Empire, gladiators were well-trained slaves, usually.
Who Were the Parents of Hercules?
Who were the parents of Hercules?
What Was the Role of Perseus in Greek Mythology?
Perseus was a Greek hero known for the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa, whose head with its snaky locks, turned men to stone.
Most Beautiful Women
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.
Do You Know the 9 Greek Muses?
The nine muses (Calliope, Urania, Euterpe, Thalia, Inspiration, Melpomene, Erato, Mnemosyne, Clio, Terpsichore, and Polymnia), their provinces and attributes.
What Does SPQR Stand For?
The abbreviation SPQR refers to the Roman senate and the Roman people. Here is a look at the Latin for each of the letters in the abbreviation.
Learn the Real Meaning Behind these Famous...
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.
The Roman Republic's 3 Branches of Government
The Roman Republican form of government had three branches.
Hera - Queen of the Gods in Greek Mythology Hera
The goddess Hera was the queen of the Greek gods, sister and wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage. Hera is described as a jealous goddess.
The Size of the Roman Legions
The Roman legions are the bodies of Roman soldiers responsible for creating the Roman Empire. Most of the soldiers were infantry, but there were also groups of cavalry, and auxiliaries. The size of these units changed over time.
Why You Should Beware the Ides of March (Or Not)
The Ides of March was just another date on the Roman calendar until the fateful day in 44 B.C. when Julius Caesar was assassinated.
Just because it happened before your parents...
Time line of major events in the ancient history of the world. Most dates and events on the ancient history timeline are of political importance.
5 Accomplishments of Julius Caesar
Read about five of the deeds and accomplishments of the great Julius Caesar.
Dionysus - Greek God Dionysus
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and ecstacy.
Rivers of the Greek Underworld
List of the rivers of the Underworld.
What's the Role of Hades in Greek Mythology?
Information about the Greek god Hades who abducted Persephone and made her the queen of the Underworld.
Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar is best known for his Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world -- which he may not actually have created and the Captivity of the Hebrews.
The 5 Worst Roman Emperors
My list of the worst Roman emperors.
Which Conqueror Are You?
Which Ancient Conqueror Are You? Take this quiz to determine which warrior you and your alter-ego really
How the Jews Lived in Jesus' Time
Understanding how the Jews lived in Jesus' time requires reading the New Testament within the context of first-century Judaism and the Roman Empire. Biblical texts hold clues to the influences on Judaism of its religious heritage and Roman occupation.
The Philistines
Glossary entry on the Philistines
What Happened When Rome Fell?
The Fall of Rome and the End of the Roman Empire in the west. Articles on the effects of certain emperors and barbarians on the fall of the Rome.
How to Write Greek Letters With HTML
If you don't have a font and only want to add a few letters of Greek, here is the code for upper and lower case Greek letters.
8 Greek Gods Everyone Should Know
Here are the eight main gods of Greek mythology. Learn about their main powers and attributes.
Michal and David - Michal Was King David's...
Michal, daughter of King Saul, was David's first wife. The Bible reports that Michal loved David, but the context of the story seems to indicate that her love was not returned by her husband. Michal and David appeared to have been married in a political alliance. When David danced nearly naked before the Ark of the Covenant, Michal's rebuke drew a harsh reply from David. Michal and David had no children.
Learn 15 of the Most Important Deities in...
Learn the basics on the main gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
Four Humors
Here is a look at the major terms connected with the Hippocratic method and especially the ancient medical use of the theory of the four humors.
Who's Who: Babylonian Gods and Goddesses
Babylonian Gods and Goddesses. Ancient / Classical History.
Who Were the Etruscans?
A look at the possible identity of the Etruscans.
What's So Interesting about the Greek God Cronos?
Basic information on the titan or Greek god Cronos who was the father of the Olympian gods and goddesses.
Coins of the 12 Caesars
Thes Suetonius-based list includes Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of Rome, from the Julio-Claudians through the Flavians.
Nymphs
Names and categories of nymphs in Greek mythology.
Bathsheba Was King David's Most Famous Wife
Bathsheba was King David's most famous wife because they committed adultery before they were married. David tried to cover up their affair after Bathsheba became pregnant, and David succeeded in getting her husband Uriah killed. Although the child they conceived during their affair died, David and Bathsheba had another son, Solomon, who was David's successor. Page 2.
How Did Gladiator Fights End
The editor of a gladiatorial match decided who lived and who died in the arena, although he usually paid some attention to the cries of the crowds and the gestures for mercy of the gladiators.
What's So Interesting about the Roman Goddess...
Aspects of the goddess of love, the goddess Venus, the Roman Aphrodite.
Abigail and David - Abigail Was King David's...
Most scholars think of Abigail as King David's wisest wife. By deflecting David's anger toward her first husband, Nabal, for refusing to give David and his men supplies, Abigail both saved her own household and kept David from a serious tactical error of murdering Nabal. Captivated by her beauty and wisdom, David wastes no time in marrying Abigail when her first husband dies. Abigail and David shared many characteristics that made Abigail the comrade that David needed for success.
Do You Know Where Cleopatra Was Originally...
Lear these important to know facts about Cleopatra, queen of ancient Egypt. Page 3.
Profile of the Greek God Zeus
Zeus is the name of the Greek king of the Gods, the equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter, a sky god.
Xerxes the Great
Xerxes was a king of the Medes and Persians, who fought against the Ancient Greeks in the Persian Wars.
The Life and Work of Homer
Learn what we think we know about the writer of one of the top three most popular books of all time.
What's the Difference Between the Greeks and...
Some basic comparisons between ancient Rome and ancient Greece, more specifically, ancient Athens.
The Early Kings of Rome
The names and dates of the legendary kings of Rome.
The Peloponnesian War - Causes of the Conflict
A look at the causes and sequences of events leading up to the Peloponnesian War.
How to Say Happy Birthday in Latin
In Latin, words that mean may it be a happy birthday would convey the message of Happy Birthday.
Pomegranate Seeds
Persephone or Proserpina, the daughter of Ceres ate the pomegranate seed and so had to stay with Hades in the Underworld, in this retelling of the story by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
Greek Goddesses
List of the major Greek goddesses in Greek mythology.
The Arian Controversy and the Council of Nicea
Arius, the heresy named Arian after him, the controversy and adoption of the Nicene Creed at the Council at Nicea, and the changing reactions to the Arian heresy.
Table of the Roman Equivalents of Greek Gods-...
Roman and Greek names for the Olympians and the minor gods
Fast Facts About Mesopotamia
Learn these fast facts about Mesopotamia, the ancient land of modern Iraq.
The Titans
Learn about the two generations of the enormous mythological creatures known as Titans.
Scenes in Art Based on the Odyssey
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast. Page 6.
Timeline of the Persian Wars 492-449
Timeline of the battles and chronology of the Persian Wars between Greece and Darius and Xerxes of Persia.
Alexander the Great
A basic facts profile of the ancient Greek military leader Alexander the Great.
Achilles - Greek Hero at Troy
Achilles was considered the greatest Greek hero of the Trojan War.
Prometheus: Fire Bringer and Philanthropist
If it weren't for Prometheus, we wouldn't be here. Learn why.
Ancient Greek doctors did say do no harm, but...
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What the gladiator used to save his own neck
A list of the armor and weapons the gladiators used for fighting.
Demeter - By Her Brothers Betrayed
Demeter, betrayed by her brothers Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, loses her daughter Persephone. While Demeter goddess of grain mourns the loss of Persephone, she makes sure all mankind suffers with her.
Horatius at the Bridge
Horatius at the Bridge poem by Lord Macaulay: lars porsena thomas babington macaulay horatius at the bridge clusium southern sky
What's the Significance of Biblical Hebrew Names?
It's important to know the meaning and significance of Biblical and Hebrew names before you give one to your child. Here are resources especially for people in the process of finding a name for their newborn.
The Life and Influence of Attila the Hun
A barbarian to the Romans, Attila, a fierce warrior and king of the horse-riding Huns, harassed the Roman Empire during the fifth century and put the fear of god in all the peoples in his way.
Cleopatra Queen of Egypt
The name Cleopatra Queen of Egypt has often been used to mean a seductive beautiful woman, but Cleopatra may not have been beautiful at all.
Here's Why Mt. Vesuvius is the World's Most...
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Forum Romanum
Read the basics about the Roman forum or Forum Romanum, by the Capitoline Hill, the center of life in ancient Rome.
What You Should Know about Plato, One of the...
What you should know about the Greek philosopher Plato.
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome
Roman Baths and Hygiene in Ancient Rome. Hygiene in ancient Rome included baths, toiletss, cleansers, access to facilities, and high standards of cleanliness.
Facts You Probably Didn't Know About the Trojan...
A description of the sequence of major events of the Trojan War and Homer's 'Iliad', starting with the theft by Paris of Helen of Troy.
Where does the expression "The Face That...
: Where does the expression "The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships" come from? : The face that launched
Imperial Dates
Table of dates of the Roman Emperors from Augustus to Romulus Augustulus.
Who Said If You Want Peace, Prepare for War?
Latin quote from Vegetius. Prepare for war and the Latin version of the quote from Vegetius.
Moses - The Bible Story of Moses, the Hebrew...
The Bible story of Moses, the Hebrew giver of Jewish Law and the 10 Commandments
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers
Timeline of Greek and Roman Philosophers.
What's the Real Story Behind Thor in Norse...
Basics on the Norse Thunder God Thor.
Beginners' Guide to Latin Verb Tenses
Latin tenses for Latin verbs in the Indicative.
Hadrian - Roman Emperor
Hadrian was the Roman emperor responsible for the wall across Britain named for him.
Ancient Women Warriors
Ancient women warriors. Ancient women who led troops into battle: Amazons, Queen Artemisia, Queen Boudicca, Queen Samsi, Queen Tomyris, Trung Sisters, Queen Zenobia.
Fast Facts About the Greek God Zeus
Fast facts about the Olympian god Zeus.
Tiberius - Roman Emperor
Tiberius, the second emperor of Rome, was not flashy or charismatic enough to overcome either his sensible domestic policy or his gossip-filled seclusion from public life.
Hermes
Fast facts about the Olympian god Hermes.
7 Points to Know About Ancient Greek Government
Ancient Greek government varied from place to place and time to time.
Celtic Gods and Goddesses
A list of major Celtic gods and goddesses.
Hannibal
Hannibal (Hannibal Barca) was the military leader of Carthage in the Second Punic War.
King Darius I the Great
King Darius I, an Achaemenid dynasty king, ruled the Persians.
Maps of Rome and the Roman Empire
Rome spread from a single settlement on the Tiber. First it spread to the surrounding territory, then all of Italy, and then most of western Europe, north Africa, Greece, and Asia Minor.
Romance Languages
Find out why we call these languages romance languages.
5 Facts About Ancient Greek and Roman Clothing
Five facts about ancient Greco-Roman clothing.
Emperor Ch'in
Glossary entry on Emperor Ch'in.
Atlantis - Plato's Atlantis From the Timaeus
Atlantis is a story from Plato's Timaeus.
What Were the Regions of Ancient Asia Minor?
A list of the regions of ancient Asia Minor.
Why Study Latin?
Do you know why your kids should learn Latin? Here are some of the advantages your children will enjoy if they study Latin.
Helen of Troy
Learn about Helen of Troy, the woman known for starting the Trojan War.
Which God Carried the World on His Shoulders?
: Which God Carried the World on His Shoulders? The expression to carry the world or the weight of the
Learn About the Egyptian God Anubis
Anubis - Egyptian God Anubis. Ancient / Classical History.
Ancient China in Pictures
Trade and economy in ancient China. Page 5.

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