CC Flickr User Ancient Art
At Actium, Octavian (the future Emperor Augustus), supported by his military leader Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, defeated his fairly-matched rival, Mark Antony, supported by the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra, on September 2, 31 B.C. Later, Cleopatra killed herself. Rome took over Egypt. Octavian and Antony had been two of the three Romans of the second triumvirate. The third man, Lepidus, had been retired earlier. With the defeat of Antony, Octavian emerged as the top man of the Roman Empire, or princeps in Latin. Our word 'prince' comes from it.