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Geographical Table or Index of the names of places and rivers mentioned in the public domain translation of The Works of Cornelius Tacitus, edited by
Arthur Murphy Esq.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A.

ACHAIA, often taken for part of Peloponnesus, but in Tacitus generally for all Greece.

ACTIUM, a promontory of Epirus, now called the Cape of Tigolo, famous for the victory of Augustus over M. Antony.

ADDUA, a river rising in the country of the Grisons, and in its course separating Milan from the territory of the Venetians, till it falls into the Po, about six miles to the west of Cremona. It is now called the Adda.

ADIABENE, a district of Assyria, so called from the river Adiaba; Adiabeni, the people.

ADRANA, now the Eder; a river that flows near Waldeck, in the landgravate of Hesse, and discharges itself into the Weser.

ADRIATIC, now the gulf of Venice.

ADRUMETUM, a Phœnician colony in Africa, about seventeen miles from Leptis Minor.

AEDUI, a people of Ancient Gaul, near what is now called Autun, in Lower Burgundy.

AEGEAE, a maritime town of Cilicia; now Aias Kala.

AEGEAN SEA, a part of the Mediterranean which lies between Greece and Asia Minor; now the Archipelago.

AEGIUM, a city of Greece, in the Peloponnesus; now the Morea.

AENUS, a river rising in the country of the Grisons, and running thence into the Danube.

AEQUI, a people of Ancient Latium.

AFRICA generally means in Tacitus that part which was made a proconsular province, of which Carthage was the capital; now the territory of Tunis.

AGRIPPINENSIS COLONIA, so called from Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus, mother of Nero, and afterwards wife of the emperor Claudius. This place is now called Cologne, situate on the Rhine.

ALBA, a town of Latium, in Italy, the residence of the Alban kings; destroyed by Tullus Hostilius.

ALBANIA, a country of Asia, bounded on the west by Iberia, on the east by the Caspian Sea, on the south by Armenia, and on the north by Mount Caucasus.

ALBINGANUM; now Albinga, to the west of the territory of Genoa, at the mouth of the river Cente.

ALBIS, now the Elbe; a river that rises in the confines of Silesia, and, after a wide circuit, falls into the German sea below Hamburgh.

ALBIUM INTEMELIUM; now Vintimiglia, south-west of the territory of Genoa, with a port on the Mediterranean, between Monaco and S. Remo.

ALESIA, a town in Celtic Gaul, situate on a hill. It was besieged by Julius Caesar. See his Commentaries, lib. vii. s. 77.

ALEXANDRIA, a principal city of Egypt, built by Alexander the Great, on the Mediterranean; famous for the library begun by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and consisting at last of seven hundred thousand volumes, till in Caesar's expedition it was destroyed by fire.

ALISO, a fort built by Drusus, the father of Germanicus, in the part of Germany now called Westphalia, near the city of Paderborn.

ALLIA, river of Italy, running into the Tiber, about forty miles from Rome; famous for the slaughter of the Romans by the Gauls, under Brennus.

ALLOBROGES, a people of Narbon Gaul, situate between the Rhodanus and the Lacus Lemanus.

ALPS, a range of high mountains separating Italy from Gaul and Germany. They are distinguished into different parts, under several names: such as the Maritime Alps, near Genoa; the Cottian Alps, separating Dauphiné from Piedmont; the Graian Alps, beginning from Mount Cenis, where the Cottian terminate, and extending to Great St. Bernard; the Pennine Alps, extending from west to east to the Rhetian Alps, the Alpes Noricae, and the Pannonian Alps, as far as the springs of the Kulpe. Their height in some places is almost incredible. They are called Alps, from Alpen, a Celtic term for high mountains.

ALTINUM, a town in the territory of Venice, on the Adriatic; now in ruins, except a tower, still retaining the name of Altino.

AMANUS, a mountain of Syria, separating it from Cilicia; now called Montagna Neros by the inhabitants; that is, the watery mountain, abounding in springs and rivulets.

AMATHUS, a maritime town of Cyprus, consecrated to Venus, with an ancient temple of Adonis and Venus: it is now called Limisso.

AMAZONIA, a country near the river Thermodon, in Pontus.

AMISIA, now the Ems; a river of Germany that falls into the German sea, near Embden.

AMORGOS, an island in the Egean sea, now Amorgo.

AMYDIS, a town near the gulf of that name, on the coast of Latium in Italy.

ANAGNIA, a town of ancient Latium, now Anagni, thirty-six miles to the east of Rome.

ANCONA, a port town in Italy, situate on the gulf of Venice.

ANDECAVI, now Anjou.

ANEMURIUM, a promontory of Cilicia, with a maritime town of the same name near it. See Pomponius Mela.

ANGRIVARIANS, a German people, situate on the west side of the Weser, near Osnaburg and Minden.

ANSIBARII, a people of Germany.

ANTIOCH, or ANTIOCHIA, the capital of Syria, called Epidaphne, to distinguish it from other cities of the name of Antioch. It is now called Antakia.

ANTIPOLIS, now Antibes, on the coast of Provence, about three leagues to the west of Nice.

ANTIUM, a city of the ancient Volsci, situate on the Tuscan Sea; the birth-place of Nero. Two Fortunes were worshipped there, which Suetonius calls Fortunae Antiates, and Martial, Sorores Antii. Horace's Ode to Fortune is well known-

O Diva gratum quae regis Antium.

The place is now called Capo d'Anzo.

ANTONA, now the Avon. See Camden.

AORSI, a people inhabiting near the Palus Maeotis; now the eastern part of Tartary, between the Neiper and the Don.

APAMEA, a city of Phrygia, near the banks of the Maeander; now Aphiom-Kara-Hisar.

APENNINUS, now the Apennine, a ridge of mountains running through the middle of Italy, extremely high, yet short of the Alps. Its name is Celtic, signifying a high mountain.

APHRODISIUM, a town of Caria in Thrace, on the Euxine.

APOLLONIDIA, a city of Lydia.

APULIA, a territory of Italy, along the gulf of Venice; now Capitanate, Otranto, &c.

AQUILEIA, a large city of the Veneti, and formerly a Roman colony, near the river Natiso, which runs into the gulf of Venice.

AQUINUM, a town of the Ancient Latins; now Aquino, but almost in ruins.

AQUITANIA, a division of Ancient Gaul, bounded by the Garumna (now Garonne), by the Pyrenees, and the ocean.

ARABIA, an extensive country of Asia, reaching from Egypt to Chaldea. It is divided into three parts, Arabia Petraea, Deserta, and Felix.

ARAR, or ARARIS, a river of Gaul; now the Saone.

ARAXES, a river of Mesopotamia, which runs from north to south, and falls into the Euphrates.

ARBELA, a city of Assyria, famous for the battle between Alexander and Darius.

ARCADIA, an inland district in the heart of Peloponnesus; mountainous, and only fit for pasture; therefore celebrated by bucolic or pastoral poets.

ARDEN, Arduenna, in Tacitus; the forest of Arden.

ARENACUM, an ancient town in the island of Batavia; now Arnheim, in Guelderland.

ARICIA, a town of Latium in Italy, at the foot of Mons Albanus, about a hundred and sixty stadia from Rome. The grove, called Aricinum Nemus, was in the vicinity.

ARII, a people of Asia.

ARIMINUM, a town of Umbria, at the mouth of the river Ariminus, on the gulf of Venice.

ARMENIA, a kingdom of Asia, having Albania and Iberia to the north, and Mount Taurus and Mesopotamia to the south: divided into the GREATER, which extends astward to the Caspian Sea; and the LESSER, to the west of the GREATER, and separated from it by the Euphrates; now called Turcomania.

ARNUS, a river of Tuscany, which visits Florence in its course, and falls into the sea near Pisa.

ARSANIAS, a river of the GREATER ARMENIA, running between Tigranocerta and Artaxata, and falling into the Euphrates.

ARTAXATA, the capital of Armenia, situate on the river Araxes.

ARVERNI, a people of Ancient Gaul, inhabiting near the Loire; their chief city Arvernum now Clermont, the capital of Auvergne.

ASCALON, an ancient city of the Philistines, situate on the Mediterranean; now Scalona.

ASCIBURGIUM, a citadel on the Rhine, where the Romans stationed a camp and a garrison.

ATESTE, a town in the territory of Venice, situate to the south of Patavium.

ATRIA, a town of the Veneti, on the river Tartarus, between the Padus and the Athesis, now the Adige.

AUGUSTA TAURINORUM, a town of the Taurini, at the foot of the Alps; now Turin, the capital of Piedmont.

AUGUSTODUNUM, the capital of the AEdui; now Autun, in the duchy of Burgundy. It took its name from Augustus Caesar.

AURIA, an ancient town of Spain; now Orense, in Galicia.

AUZEA, a strong castle in Mauritania.

AVENTICUM, the capital of the Helvetii; by the Germans called Wiflisburg, by the French Avenches.

B.

BACTRIANI, a people inhabiting a part of Asia, to the south of the river Oxus, which rains from east to west into the Caspian Sea.

BAIAE, a village of Campania, between the promontory of Misenum and Puteoli (now Pozzuolo), nine miles to the west of Naples.

BALEARES, a cluster of islands in the Mediterranean, of which Majorca and Minorca are the chief.

BASTARNI, a people of Germany, who led a wandering life in the vast regions between the Vistula and the Pontic sea.

BATAVIA, an island formed by two branches of the Rhine and the German sea. See Annals, book ii. s. 6; and Manners of the Germans, s. 29. note a.

BATAVODURUM, a town in the island of Batavia; now, as some of the commentators say, Wyk-te-Duurstede.

BEBRYACUM, or BEDRYACUM, a village situate between Verona and Cremona; famous for two successive defeats; that of Otho, and soon after that of Vitellius.

BELGIC GAUL, the country between the Seine and the Marne to the west, the Rhine to the east, and the German sea to the north.

BERYTUS, now Barut, in Phœnicia.

BETASII, the people inhabiting the country now called Brabant.

BITHYNIA, a proconsular province of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by the Euxine and the Propontic, adjoining to Troas, over-against Thrace; now Becsangial.

BŒTICA, one of the provinces into which Augustus Caesar divided the Farther Spain.

BOII, a people of Celtic Gaul, in the country now called Bourbonnois. There was also a nation of the same name in Germany. See Manners of the Germans, s. 28.

BONNA, now Bonn, in the electorate of Cologne.

BONONIA, called by Tacitus Bononiensis; now Bologna, capital of the Bolognese in Italy.

BOSPHORANI, a people bordering on the Euxine; the Tartars.

BOSPHORUS, two straits of the sea so called; one Bosphorus Thracius, now the straits of Constantinople; the other Bosphorus Cimmerius, now the straits of Caffa.

BOVILLAE, a town of Latium, near Mount Albanus; about ten miles from Rome, on the Appian Road.

BRIGANTES, the ancient inhabitants of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland.

BRIXELLUM, the town where Otho dispatched himself after the defeat at Bedriacum; now Bresello, in the territory of Reggio.

BRIXIA, a town of Italy, on this side of the Po; now Brescia.

BRUCTERIANS, a people of Germany, situate in Westphalia. See the Manners of the Germans, s. 33. note a.

BRUNDUSIUM, a town of Calabria, with an excellent harbour, at the entrance of the Adriatic, affording to the Romans a commodious passage to Greece. The Via Appia ended at this town. Now Brindisi, in the territory of Otranto, in the kingdom of Naples.

BYZANTIUM, a city of Thrace, on the narrow strait that separates Europe from Asia; now Constantinople. See Annals, xii. s. 63.

C.

CAELALETAE, a people of Thrace, near Mount Haemus.

CAERACATES, probably the diocese of Mayence.

CAESAREA, a maritime town in Palestine; now Kaisarié.

CAESIAN FOREST, now the Forest of Heserwaldt, in the duchy of Cleves. It is supposed to be a part of the Hercynian Forest.

CALABRIA, a peninsula of Italy, between Tarentum and Brundusium; now the territory of Otranto, in the kingdom of Naples.

CAMELODUNUM, said by some to be Malden in Essex, but by Camden, and others, Colchester. It was made a Roman colony under the emperor Claudius; a place of pleasure rather than of strength, adorned with splendid works, a theatre, and a temple of Claudius.

CAMERIUM, a city in the territory of the Sabines; now destroyed.

CAMPANIA, a territory of Italy, bounded on the west by the Tuscan sea. The most fertile and delightful part of Italy; now called Terra di Lavoro.

CANGI, the inhabitants of Cheshire, and part of Lancashire.

CANINEFATES, a people of the Lower Germany, from the same origin as the Batavians, and inhabitants of the west part of the isle of Batavia.

CANOPUS, a city of the Lower Egypt, situate on a branch of the Nile called by the same name.

CAPPADOCIA, a large country in Asia Minor, between Cilicia the Euxine sea. Being made a Roman province, the inhabitants had an offer made them of a free and independent government; but their answer was, Liberty might suit the Romans, but the Cappadocians would neither receive liberty, nor endure it.

CAPREA, an island on the coast of Campania, about four miles in length from east to west, and about one in breadth. It stands opposite to the promontory of Surrentum, and has the bay of Naples in view. It was the residence of Tiberius for several years.

CAPUA, now Capoa, a city in the kingdom of Naples; the seat of pleasure, and the ruin of Hannibal.

CARMEL, a mountain in Galilee, on the Mediterranean.

CARSULAE, a town of Umbria, about twenty miles from Mevania; now in ruins.

CARTHAGO, once the most famous city of Africa, and the rival of Rome; supposed by some to have been built by queen Dido, seventy years after the foundation of Rome; but Justin will have it before Rome. It was the capital of what is now the kingdom of Tunis.

CARTHAGO NOVA, a town of Hispania Tarraconensis, or the Hither Spain; now Carthagena.

CASPIAN SEA, a vast lake between Persia, Great Tartary, Muscovy and Georgia, said to be six hundred miles long, and near as broad.

CASSIOPE, a town in the island of Corcyra (now Corfou), called at present St. Maria di Cassopo.

CATTI, a people of Germany, who inhabited part of the country now called Hesse, from the mountains of Hartz, to the Weser and the Rhine.

CAUCI. See CHAUCI.

CELENDRIS, a place on the coast of Cilicia, near the confines of Pamphylia.

CENCHRIAE, a port of Corinth, situate about ten miles towards the east; now Kenkri.

CENCHRIS, a river running through the Ortygian Grove.

CEREINA, an island in the Mediterranean, to the north of the Syrtis Minor in Africa; now called Kerkeni.

CHALCEDON, a city of Bithynia, situate at the mouth of the Euxine, over-against Byzantium. It was called the City of the Blind. See Annals, xii. s. 63.

CHAUCI, a people of Germany, inhabiting what we now call East Friesland, Bremen, and Lunenburg. See Manners of the Germans, s. 35.

CHERUSCANS, a great and warlike people of Ancient Germany, to the north of the Catti, between the Elbe and the Weser.

CIBYRA, formerly a town of Phrygia, near the banks of the Maeander, but now destroyed.

CILICIA, an extensive country in the Hither Asia, bounded by Mount Taurus to the north, by the Mediterranean to the south, by Syria to the east, and by Pamphylia to the west. It was one of the provinces reserved for the management of the emperor.

CINITHIANS, a people of Africa.

CIRRHA, a town of Phocis, near Delphi, sacred to Apollo.

CIRRHUS, a town of Syria, in the district of Commagene, and not far from Antioch.

CIRTA, formerly the capital of Numidia, and the residence of the king. It is now called Constantina, in the kingdom of Algiers.

CLITAE, a people of Cilicia, near Mount Taurus.

CLUNIA, a city in the Hither Spain.

COLCHOS, a country of Asia, on the east of the Euxine, famous for the fable of the Golden Fleece, the Argonautic Expedition, and the Fair Enchantress, Medea.

COLOPHON, a city of Ionia, in the Hither Asia. One of the places that claimed the birth of Homer; now destroyed.

COMMAGENE, a district of Syria, bounded on the east by the Euphrates, on the west by Amanus, and on the north by Mount Taurus.

COOS. See Cos.

CORCYRA, an island in the Adriatic; now Corfou.

CORINTHUS, a city of Achaia, on the south part of the isthmus which joins Peloponnesus to the continent. From its situation between two seas, Horace says, Bimarisve Corinthi mœnia.

The city was taken and burnt to the ground by Mummius the Roman general, A.U.C. 608. It was afterwards restored to its ancient splendour, and made a Roman colony. It retains the name of Corinth.

CORMA, a river in Asia; mentioned by Tacitus only.

CORSICA, an island in the part of the Mediterranean called the Sea of Liguria, in length from north to south about a hundred and fifty miles, and about fifty where broadest. To the south it is separated from Sardinia by a narrow channel.

COS, or COOS, one of the islands called the Cyclades, in the AEgean sea, famous for being the birth-place of Apelles; now Stan Co.

COSA, a promontory of Etruria; now Mont Argentaro, in Tuscany.

CREMERA, a river of Tuscany, falling into the Tiber a little to the north of Rome, rendered famous by the slaughter of the Fabii.

CREMONA, a city of Italy, built A.U.C. 536, and afterwards, in the year 822, rased to the ground by the army of Vespasian, in the war with Vitellius. It was soon rebuilt by the citizens, with the exhortations of Vespasian. It is now a flourishing city in the duchy of Milan, and retains the name of Cremona.

CUMAE, a town of Campania, near Cape Misenum, famous for the cave of the Cumaean Sibyl.

CUSUS, a river in Hungary, that falls into the Danube.

CYCLADES, a cluster of islands in the AEgean sea, so called from Cyclus, the orb in which they lie. Their names and number are not ascertained. Strabo reckons sixteen.

CYME, a maritime town of AEolia in Asia.

CYPRUS, a noble island opposite to the coast of Syria, formerly sacred to Venus, whence she was called the Cyprian goddess.

CYRENE (now called Curin), the capital of Cyrenaica, a district of Africa, now the Desert of Barca. It stood about eleven miles from the sea, and had an excellent harbour.

CYTHERA, an island situated on the coast of Peloponnesus formerly sacred to Venus, and thence her name of Cytherea. The island is now called Cerigo.

CYTHNUS, one of the islands called the Cyclades, in the AEgean Sea.

CYZICUS, a city of Mysia, in the Hither Asia, rendered famous by the long siege of Mithridates, which at last was raised by Lucullus.

D.

DACIA, a country extending between the Danube and the Carpathian mountains to the mouth of the Danube, and to the Euxine, comprising a part of Upper Hungary, Transylvania, and Moldavia. The inhabitants to the west, towards Germany, were called Daci; those to the east towards the Euxine were called Getae. The whole country was reduced by Trajan to a Roman province.

DAHAE, a people of Scythia, to the south of the Caspian, with the Massagetae on the east. Virgil calls them indomitique Dahae.

DALMATIA, an extensive country bordering on Macedonia and Maesia, and having the Adriatic to the south.

DANDARIDAE, a people bordering on the Euxine. Brotier says that some vestiges of the nation, and its name, still exist at a place called Dandars.

DANUBE, the largest river in Europe. It rises in Suabia, and after visiting Bavaria, Austria, Hungary, and taking thence a prodigious circuit, falls at last into the Black or Euxine sea. See Manners of the Germans, s. 1. note g.

DELOS, the central island of the Cyclades, famous in mythology for the birth of Apollo and Diana.

DELPHI, a famous inland town of Phocis in Greece, with a temple and oracle of Apollo, situate near the foot of Mount Parnassus.

DENTHELIATE LANDS, a portion of the Peloponnesus that lay between Laconia and Messenia; often disputed by those states.

DERMONA, a river of Gallia Transpadana; it runs into the Ollius (now Oglio), and through that channel into the Po.

DIVODURUM, a town in Gallia Belgica, situate on the Moselle, on the spot where Metz now stands.

DONUSA, or DONYSA, an island in the AEgean sea, not far from Naxos. Virgil has, Bacchatamque jugis Naxon, viridemque Donysam.

DYRRACHIUM, a town on the coast of Illyricum. Its port answered to that of Brundusium, affording a convenient passage to Italy.

E.

ECBATANA, the capital of Media; now Hamedan.

EDESSA, a town of Mesopotamia; now Orrhoa, or Orfa.

ELEPHANTINE, an island in the Nile, not far from Syene; at which last place stood the most advanced Roman garrison, Notitia Imperii.

ELEUSIS, a district of Attica near the sea-coast, sacred to Ceres, where the Eleusinian mysteries were performed; now in ruins.

ELYMAEI, a people bordering on the gulf of Persia.

EMERITA, a city of Spain; now Merida in the province of Estramadoura.

EPHESUS, an ancient and celebrated city of Ionia, in Asia Minor; now Efeso. It was the birth-place of Heraclitus, the weeping philosopher.

EPIDAPHNE, a town in Syria, not far from Antioch.

EPOREDIA, a town at the foot of the Alps, afterwards a Roman colony; now Jurea, or Jura, a city of Piedmont.

ERINDE, a river of Asia, mentioned by Tacitus only.

ERITHRAE, a maritime town of Ionia, in Asia Minor.

ETRURIA, a district of Italy, extending from the boundary of Liguria to the Tiber; now Tuscany.

EUBŒA, an island near the coast of Attica; now Negropont.

EUPHRATES, a river of Asia, universally allowed to take its rise in Armenia Major. It divides into two branches, one running through Babylon, and the other through Seleucia. It bounds Mesopotamia on the west.

EUXINE, or PONTUS EUXINUS; now the Black Sea.

F.

FERENTINUM, a town of Latium, in Italy; now Ferentino, in the Campania of Rome.

FERENTUM, a town of Etruria; now Ferenti.

FERONIA, a town in Etruria.

FIDENAE, a small town in the territory of the Sabines, about six miles to the north of Rome. The place where the ruins of Fidenae are seen, is now called Castello Giubileo.

FLAMMINIAN WAY, made by Flamminius A.U.C. 533, from Rome to Ariminum, a town of Umbria, or Romana, at the mouth of the river Ariminus, on the gulf of Venice. It is now called Rimini.

FLEVUS, a branch of the Rhine, that emptied itself into the lakes which have been long since absorbed by the Zuyderzee. A castle, called Flevum Castellum, was built there by Drusus, the father of Germanicus.

FORMIAE, a maritime town of Italy, to the south-east of Cajeta. The ruins of the place are still visible.

FOROJULIUM. See FORUM JULIUM.

FORUM ALLIENI, now Ferrare, on the Po.

FORUM JULIUM, a Roman colony in Gaul, founded by Julius Caesar, and completed by Augustus, with a harbour at the mouth of the river Argens, capable of receiving a large fleet. The ruins of two moles at the entrance of the harbour are still to be seen. See Life of Agricola, s. 4. note a. The place is now called Frejus.

FRISII, the ancient inhabitants of Friesland. See Manners of the Germans.

FUNDANI MONTES, now Fondi, a city of Naples, on the confines of the Pope's dominions.

G.

GABII, a town of Latium, between Rome and Preneste. A particular manner of tucking up the gown, adopted by the Roman consuls when they declared war or attended a sacrifice, was called Cinctus Gabinus. The place now extinct.

GAETULI, a people of Africa, bordering on Mauritania.

GALATIA, or GALLOGRAECIA, a country of Asia Minor, lying between Cappadocia, Pontus, and Pophlagonia; now called Chiangare.

GALILAEA, the northern part of Canaan, or Palestine, bounded on the north by Phœnicia, on the south by Samaria, on the east by the Jordan, and on the west by the Mediterranean.

GALLIA, the country of ancient Gaul, now France. It was divided by the Romans into Gallia Cisalpina, viz. Gaul on the Italian side of the Alps, with the Rubicon for its boundary to the south. It was also called Gallia Togata, from the use made by the inhabitants of the Roman Toga. It was likewise called Gallia Transpadana, or Cispadana, with respect to Rome. The second great division of Gaul was Gallia Transalpina, or Ulterior, being, with respect to Rome, on the other side of the Alps. It was also called Gallia Comata, from the people wearing their hair long, which the Romans wore short. The southern part was GALLIA NARBONENSIS, Narbon Gaul, called likewise Braccata, from the use of braccae, or breeches, which were no part of the Roman dress; now Languedoc, Dauphiny, and Provence. For the other divisions of Gaul on this side of the Alps, into the Gallia Belgica, Celtica, Aquitanica, further subdivided by Augustus, see the Manners of the Germans, s. 1. note a.

GARAMANTES, a people in the interior part of Africa, extending over a vast tract of country at present little known.

GARIZIM, a mountain of Samaria, famous for a temple built on it by permission of Alexander the Great.

GELDUBA, not far from Novesium (now Nuys, in the electorate of Cologne) on the west side of the Rhine.

GEMONIAE, a place at Rome, into which were thrown the bodies of malefactors.

GERMANIA, Ancient Germany, bounded on the east by the Vistula (the Weissel), on the north by the Ocean, on the west by the Rhine, and on the south by the Danube. A great part of Gaul, along the west side of the Rhine, was also called Germany by Augustus Caesar, Germania Cisrhenana, and by him distinguished into Upper and Lower Germany.

GOTHONES, a people of ancient Germany, who inhabited part of Poland, and bordered on the Vistula.

GRAIAN ALPS, Graiae Alpes, supposed to be so called from the Greeks who settled there. See ALPS.

GRINNES, a town of the Batavi, on the right side of the Vahalis (now the Waal), in the territory of Utrecht.

GUGERNI, a people originally from Germany, inhabiting part of the duchy of Cleves and Gueldre, between the Rhine and the Meuse.

GYARUS, one of the islands called the Cyclades, rendered famous by being allotted for the banishment of Roman citizens. Juvenal says, Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris, et carcere dignum, si vis esse aliquis.

H.

HAEMUS, MOUNT, a ridge of mountains running from Illyricum towards the Euxine sea; now Mont Argentaro.

HAEMONADENSIANS, a people bordering on Cilicia.

HALICARNASSUS, the capital of Caria, in Asia Minor, famous for being the birth-place of Herodotus and Dionysius, commonly called Dionysius Halicarnassensis.

HELVETII, a people in the neighbourhood of the Allobroges, situate on the south-west side of the Rhine, and separated from Gaul by the Rhodanus and Lacus Lemanus.

HENIOCHIANS, a people dwelling near the Euxine Sea.

HERCULANEUM, a town of Campania, near Mount Vesuvius, swallowed up by an earthquake. Several antiquities have been lately dug out of the ruins.

HERCYNIAN FOREST: in the time of Julius Caesar, the breadth could not be traversed in less than nine days; and after travelling lengthways for sixty days, no man reached the extremity. Caesar, De Bell. Gal. lib. vi. s. 29.

HERMUNDURI, a people of Germany, in part of what is now called Upper Saxony, bounded on the north by the river Sala, on the east by the Elbe, and on the south by the Danube.

HIERO-CAESAREA, a city in Lydia, famous for a temple to the Persian Diana, supposed to have been built by Cyrus.

HISPALIS, a town of Bœtica in the Farther Spain; now Seville in Andalusia.

HISPANIA, Spain, otherwise called Iberia, from the river Iberus. It has the sea on every side except that next to Gaul, from which it is separated by the Pyrenees. During the time of the republic, the whole country was divided into two provinces, Ulterior and Citerior, the Farther and Hither Spain. Augustus divided the Farther Spain into two provinces; Bœtica, and Lusitania. The Hither Spain he called Tarraconensis, and then Spain was formed into three provinces; Bœtica, under the management of the senate; and the other two reserved for officers appointed by the prince.

HOSTILIA, a village on the Po: now Ostiglia, in the neighbourhood of Cremona.

HYPAEPA, a small city in Lydia, now rased to the ground.

HYRCANIA, a country of the Farther Asia, to the east of the Caspian Sea, with Media on the west, and Parthia on the south; famous for its tigers. There was a city of the same name in Lydia.

I.

IBERIA, an inland country of Asia, bounded by Mount Caucasus on the north, by Albania on the cast, by Colchis and part of Pontus on the west, and by Armenia on the south. Spain was also called Iberia, from the river Iberus; now the Ebro.

IBERUS, a noble river of the Hither Spain; now the Ebro.

ICENI, a people of Britain; now Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk.

ILIUM, another name for ancient Troy. A new city, nearer to the sea, was built after the famous siege of Troy, and made a Roman colony. But, as was said of the old city, Etiam periere ruinae.

ILLYRICUM, the country between Pannonia to the north, and the Adriatic to the south. It is now comprised by Dalmatia and Sclavonia, under the respective dominion of the Venetians and the Turks.

INSUBRIA, a country of Gallia Cisalpina; now the Milanese.

INTEMELIUM. See ALBIUM INTEMELIUM.

INTERAMNA, an ancient town of the Volsci in Latium, not far from the river Liris. It is now in ruins.

IONIAN SEA, the sea that washes the western coast of Greece, opposite to the gulf of Venice.

ISICHI, a people bordering on the Euxine, towards the east.

ISTRIA, an island in the gulf of Venice, still retaining its ancient name. There was also a town of the same name near the mouth of the Ister, on the Euxine Sea.

ITURAEA, a Transjordan district of Palestine, now Bacar.

J.

JAPHA, a strong place, both by nature and art, in the Lower Galilee, not far from Jotapata; now Saphet.

JAZYGES, a people of Sarmatia Europaea, situate on this side of the Palus Maeotis, near the territory of Maroboduus, the German king.

JUGANTES, said by Camden to be the same as the Brigantes, but Brotier thinks it probable that they were a distinct, people.

L.

LACUS LEMANUS, now the Lake of Geneva.

LANGOBARDI, a people of Germany, between the Elbe and the Oder, in part of what is now called Brandenburg.

LANUVIUM, a town of Latium, about sixteen miles from Rome; now Civita Lavinia.

LAODICEA, a town of Phrygia, called, to distinguish it from other cities of the same name, Laodicea ad Lycum. Spon, in his account of his travels, says it is rased to the ground, except four theatres built, with marble, finely polished, and in as good condition as if they were modern structures; now called Ladik.

LAODICEA AD MARE, a considerable town on the coast of Syria, well built, with a commodious harbour.

LATIUM, the country of the Latini, so called from king Latinus; contained at first within narrow bounds, but greatly enlarged under the Alban kings and the Roman consuls, by the accession of the AEqui, Volsci, Hernici, &c.

LECHAEUM, the west port of Corinth, which the people used for their Italian trade, as they did Cenchrae for their eastern or Asiatic.

LEPTIS, there were in Africa two ancient cities of the name, Leptis magna, and Leptis parva. The first (now called Lebeda) was in the territory of Tripoli; the second, a town on the Mediterranean, not far from Carthage.

LESBOS, an island in the Egean Sea, near the coast of Asia; the birth-place of Sappho: now called Metelin.

LEUCI, a people of Gallia Belgica, to the north of the Lingones, between the Moselle and the Meuse.

LIBYA, the name given by the Greeks to all Africa; but, properly speaking, it was an interior part of Africa.

LIGERIS; now the Loire.

LIGURIA, a country of Italy, divided into the maritime, Ligus Ora; and the inland Liguria; both between the Apennine to the south, the Maritime Alps to the west, and the Po to the north. It contained what is now called Ferrara, and the territories of Genoa.

LINGONES, a people of Gallia Belgica, inhabiting the country about Langres and Dijon.

LONGOBARDI, or LANGOBORDI, a people of Germany, between the Elbe and the Oder. See Manners of the Germans, s. 40 note a.

LUCANIA, a country of ancient Italy; now called the Basilicate.

LUGDUNUM, a city of ancient Gaul; now Lyons.

LUGDUNUM BATAVORUM, a town of the Batavi, now Leyden in Holland. There was another town of the name in Gallia Celtica, at the confluence of the Arar (the Saone) and the Rhodanus (the Rhone). The place is now called Lyons.

LUPPIA, a river of Westphalia; now the Lippe.

LUSITANIA, now the kingdom of Portugal, on the west of Spain, formerly a part of it.

LYCIA, a country in Asia Minor, bounded by Pamphylia, Phrygia, and the Mediterranean.

LYDIA, an inland country of Asia Minor, formerly governed by Crœsus; now Carasia.

LYGII, an ancient people of Germany, who inhabited the country now called Silesia, and also part of Poland.

M.

MACEDONIA, a large country, rendered famous by Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander; now a province of the Turkish empire, bounded by Servia and Bulgaria to the north, by Greece to the south, by Thrace and the Archipelago to the east, and by Epirus to the west.

MAEOTIS PALUS, a lake of Sarmatia Europaea, still known by the same name, and reaching from Crim Tartary to the mouth of the Tanais (the Don).

MAESIA, a district of the ancient Illyricum, bordering on Pannonia, containing what is now called Bulgaria, and part of Servia.

MAGNESIA: there were anciently three cities of the name; one in Ionia, on the Maeander, which, it is said, was given to Themistocles by Artaxerxes, with these words, to furnish his table with bread; it is now called Guzel-Hissard, in Asiatic Turkey: the second was at the foot of Mount Sipylus, in Lydia; but has been destroyed by earthquakes: the third Magnesia was a maritime town of Thessaly, on the Egean Sea.

MAGONTIACUM, a town of Gallia Belgica; now Mentz, situate at the confluence of the Rhine and the Maine.

MARCODURUM, a village of Gallia Belgica; now Duren on the Roer.

MARCOMANIANS, a people of Germany, between the Rhine, the Danube, and the Neckar. They removed to the country of the Boii, and having expelled the inhabitants, occupied the country now called Bohemia. See Manners of the Germans, s. 42.

MARDI, a people of the Farther Asia, near the Caspian Sea.

MARITIME ALPS. See ALPS.

MARSACI, a people in the north of Batavia, inhabiting the sea-coast.

MARSI, a people of Italy, who dwelt round the Lacus Fucinus. Another people called Marsi, in Germany, to the south of the Frisii, in the country now called Paderborne and Munster.

MASSILLIA, a town of Gallia Narbonensis, formerly celebrated for polished manners and learning; now Marseilles, a port town of Provence.

MATTIACI, a branch of the Catti in Germany. Their capital town was

MATTIUM, supposed now to be Marpourg in Hesse.

MAURITANIA, a large region of Africa, extending from east to west along the Mediterranean, divided by the emperor Claudius into Caesariensis, the eastern part, and Tingitana, the western. It had Numidia to the east, and Getulia to the south; and was also bounded by the Atlantic ocean, the straits of Gibraltar, and the Mediterranean to the north. The natives were called Mauri, and thence the name of Mauritania; now Barbary.

MEDIA, a country of the Farther Asia, bounded on the west by Armenia, on the east by Parthia, on the north by the Caspian Sea, on the south by Persia. Ecbatana was the capital.

MEDIOLANUM, now Milan in Italy.

MEDIOMATRICI, a people of Gallia Belgica; now the diocese of Metz.

MELITENE, a city of Cappadocia.

MEMPHIS, a city of Egypt, famous for its pyramids.

MENAPII, a people of Belgia; now Brabant and Flanders.

MESOPOTAMIA, a large country in the middle of Asia; so called, because it lies, [Greek: mesae potamon], between two rivers, the Euphrates on the west, and the Tigris on the east.

MESSENA, or MESSANA, an ancient and celebrated city of Sicily, on the strait between that island and Italy. It still retains the name of Messina.

MEVANIA, a town of Umbria, near the Clitumnus, a river that runs from east to west into the Tiber.

MILETUS, an ancient city of Ionia, in Asia Minor; now totally destroyed.

MILVIUS PONS, a bridge over the Tiber, at the distance of two miles from Rome, on the Via Flamminia; now called Ponte-Molle.

MINTURNAE, a town on the confines of Campania, near the river Liris.

MISENUM, a promontory of Campania, with a good harbour, near the Sinus Puteolanus, or the bay of Naples, on the north side. It was the station for the Roman fleets. Now Capo di Miseno.

MITYLENE, the capital city of the isle of Lesbos, and now gives name to the whole island.

MONA, an island separated from the coast of the Ordovices by a narrow strait, the ancient seat of the Druids. Now the isle of Anglesey.

MONAECI PORTUS, now Monaco, a port town in the territory of Genoa.

MORINI, a people of Belgia, inhabiting the diocese of Tournay, and the country about St. Omer and Boulogne.

MOSA, a large river of Belgic Gaul; it receives a branch of the Rhine, called Vahalis, and falls into the German Ocean below the Briel. It is now the Maese, or Meuse.

MOSELLA, a river, which, running through Lorrain, falls into the Rhine at Coblentz, now called the Moselle.

MOSTENI, the common name of the people and their town on the river Hermus, in Lydia.

MUSULANI, an independent savage people in Africa, on the confines of Carthage, Numidia, and Mauritania.

MUTINA, now Modena, a city of Lombardy, in Italy.

MYRINA, a town of AEolis, or AEolia, in the Hither Asia; now Sanderlik.

N.

NABALIA, the name of the channel made by Drusus from the Rhine to the river Sala; now the Ysell. See Annals, ii. s. 8.

NABATHAEI, a people between the Euphrates and the Red Sea; comprehending Arabia Petraea, and bounded by Palestine on the north.

NAR, a river which rises in Umbria, and, falling into the lake Velinus, rushes thence with a violent and loud cascade, and empties itself into the Tiber.

NARBON GAUL, the southern part of Gaul, bounded by the Pyrenees to the west, the Mediterranean to the south, and the Alps and the Rhine to the east.

NARNIA, a town of Umbria, on the river Nar; now Narni, in the territory of the Pope.

NAUPORTUM, a town on a cognominal river in Pannonia.

NAVA, a river of Gallia Belgica, which runs north-east into the west side of the Rhine; now the Nahe.

NAVARIA, now Novara, a city of Milan.

NEMETES, a people originally of Germany, removed to the diocese of Spire, on the Rhine.

NICEPHORUS, a river of Asia that washes the walls of Tigranocerta, and runs into the Tigris; D'Anville says, now called Khabour.

NICOPOLIS: there were several towns of this name, viz. in Egypt, Armenia, Bithynia, on the Euxine, &c. A town of the same name was built by Augustus, on the coast of Epirus, as a monument of his victory at Actium.

NINOS, the capital of Assyria; called also Nineve.

NISIBIS, a city of Mesopotamia, at this day called Nesibin.

NOLA, a city of Campania, on the north-east of Vesuvius. At this place Augustus breathed his last: it retains its old name to this day.

NORICUM, a Roman province, bounded by the Danube on the north, by the Alpes Noricae on the south, by Pannonia on the east, and Vindelicia on the west; now containing a great part of Austria, Tyrol, Bavaria, &c.

NOVESIUM, a town of the Ubii in Gallia Belgica; now Nuys, on the west side of the Rhine, in the electorate of Cologne.

NUCERIA, a city of Campania; now Nocera.

NUMIDIA, a celebrated kingdom of Africa, bordering on Mauritania, and bounded to the north by the Mediterranean; now Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, &c. the eastern part of the kingdom of Algiers. Syphax was king of one part, and Masinissa of the other.

O.

OCRICULUM, a town of Umbria, near the confluence of the Nar and the Tiber; now Otricoli, in the duchy of Spoletto.

ODRYSAE, a people situated in the western part of Thrace, how a province of European Turkey.

OEENSES, a people of Africa, who occupied the country between the two Syrtes on the Mediterranean. Their city was called Oea, now Tripoli.

OPITERGIUM, now Oderzo, in the territory of Venice.

ORDOVICES, a people who inhabited what we now call Flintshire, Denbighshire, Carnarvon, and Merionethshire, in North Wales.

OSTIA, formerly a town of note, at the mouth of the Tiber (on the south side), whence its name; at this day it lies in ruins.

P.

PADUS, anciently called Eridanus by the Greeks, famous for the fable of Phaeton; it receives several rivers from the Alps and Apennine, and, running from west to east, discharges itself into the Adriatic. It is now called the Po.

PAGIDA, a river in Numidia; its modern name is not ascertained. D'Anville thinks it is now called Fissato, in the territory of Tripoli.

PALUS MAEOTIS; see MAEOTIS.

PAMPHYLIA, a country of the Hither Asia, bounded by Pisidia to the north, and by the Mediterranean to the south.

PANDA, a river of Asia, in the territory of the Siraci; not well known.

PANDATARIA, an island of the Tuscan Sea, in the Sinus Puteolanus (now il Golfo di Napoli), the place of banishment for illustrious exiles, viz. Julia the daughter of Augustus, Agrippina the wife of Germanicus, Octavia the daughter of Claudius, and many others. It is now called L'lsle Sainte-Marie, or Santa Maria.

PANNONIA, an extensive country of Europe, bounded by Maesia on the east, by Noricum on the west, Dalmatia on the south, and by the Danube to the north; containing part of Austria and Hungary.

PANNONIAN ALPS. See ALPS.

PAPHOS: there were two towns of the name, both on the west side of the island of Cyprus, and dedicated to Venus, who was hence the Paphian and the Cyprian goddess.

PARTHIA, a country of the Farther Asia, with Media on the west, Asia on the east, and Hyrcania on the north.

PATAVIUM, now Padua, in the territory of Venice.

PELIGNI, a people of Samaium, near Naples.

PELOPONNESUS, the large peninsula to the south of Greece, so called after Pelops, viz. Pelopis Nesus. It is joined to the rest of Greece by the isthmus of Corinth, which lies between the Egean and Ionian seas. It is now called the Morea.

PENNINAE ALPES. See ALPS.

PERGAMOS, an ancient and famous city of Mysia, situate on the Caicus, which runs through it. It was the residence of Attalus and his successors. This place was famous for a royal library, formed, with emulation, to vie with that of Alexandria in Egypt. The kings of the latter, stung with paltry jealousy, prohibited the exportation of paper. Hence the invention of parchment, called Pergamana charta. Plutarch assures us, that the library at Pergamos contained two hundred thousand volumes. The whole collection was given by Marc Antony as a present to Cleopatra, and thus the two libraries were consolidated into one. In about six or seven centuries afterwards, the volumes of science, by order of the calif Omar, served for a fire to warm the baths of Alexandria; and thus perished all the physic of the soul. The town subsists at this day, and retains the name of Pergamos. See Spon's Travels, vol. i.

PERINTHUS, a town of Thrace, situate on the Propontis, now called Heraclea.

PERUSIA, formerly a principal city of Etruria, on the north side of the Tiber, with the famous Lacus Trasimenus to the east. It was besieged by Augustus, and reduced by famine. Lucan has, Perusina fames. It is now called Perugia, in the territory of the Pope.

PHARSALIA, a town in Thessaly, rendered famous by the last battle between Pompey and Julius Caesar.

PHILADELPHIA: there were several ancient towns of this name. That which Tacitus mentions was in Lydia, built by Attalus Philadelphus; it is now called by the Turks, Alah Scheyr.

PHILIPPI, a city of Macedonia, on the confines of Thrace; built by Philip of Macedon, and famous for the battle fought on its plains between Augustus and the republican party. It is now in ruins.

PHILIPPOPOLIS, a city of Thrace, near the river Hebrus. It derived its name from Philip of Macedon, who enlarged it, and augmented the number of inhabitants.

PICENTIA, the capital of the Picentini, on the Tuscan Sea. not far from Naples.

PICENUM, a territory of Italy, to the east of Umbria, and in some parts extending from the Apennine to the Adriatic. It is now supposed to be the March of Ancona.

PIRAEEUS, a celebrated port near Athens. It is much frequented at this day; its name, Porto Lione.

PISAE, a town of Etruria, which gave name to the bay of Pisa, Sinus Pisanus.

PLACENTIA, a town in Italy, now called Placenza, in the duchy of Parma.

PLANASIA, a small island near the coast of Etruria, in the Tuscan Sea; now Pianosa.

POMPEII, a town of Campania, near Herculaneum. It was destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Nero.

POMPEIOPOLIS: there were anciently two cities of the name; one in Cilicia, another in Paphlagonia.

PONTIA, an island in the Tuscan sea; a place of relegation or banishment.

PONTUS, an extensive country of Asia Minor, lying between Bithynia and Paphlagonia, and extending along the Pontus Euxinus, the Euxine or the Pontic Sea, from which it took its name. It had that sea to the east, the mouth of the Ister to the north, and Mount Haemus to the south. The wars between Mithridates, king of Pontus, and the Romans, are well known.

PRAENESTE, a town of Latium to the south-east of Rome, standing very high, and said to be a strong place. The town that succeeded it, stands low in a valley, and is called Palestrina.

PROPONTIS, near the Hellespont and the Euxine; now the Sea of Marmora.

PUTEOLI, a town of Campania, so called from its number of wells; now Pozzuolo, nine miles to the west of Naples.

PYRAMUS, a river of Cilicia, rising in Mount Taurus, and running from east to west into the Sea of Cilicia.

PYRGI, a town of Etruria, on the Tuscan Sea; now St. Marinella, about thirty-three miles distant from Rome.

Q.

QUADI, a people of Germany, situate to the south-east of Bohemia, on the banks of the Danube. See Manners, of the Germans, s. 42. note b.

R.

RAVENNA, an ancient city of Italy, near the coast of the Adriatic. A port was constructed at the mouth of the river Bedesis, and by Augustus made a station for the fleet that guarded the Adriatic. It is still called Ravenna.

REATE, a town of the Sabines in Latium, situate near the lake Velinus.

REGIUM. See RHEGIUM.

REMI, a people of Gaul, who inhabited the northern part of Champagne; now the city of Rheims.

RHACOTIS, the ancient name of Alexandria in Egypt.

RHAETIA, a country bounded by the Rhine to the west, the Alps to the east, by Italy to the south, and Vindelicia to the north. Horace says Videre Rhaeti bella sub Alpibus Drusum gerentem, et Vindelici. Now the country of the Grisons.

RHEGIUM, an ancient city at the extremity of the Apennine, on the narrow strait between Italy and Sicily. It is now called Reggio, in the farther Calabria.

RHINE, the river that rises in the Rhaetian Alps, and divides Gaul from Germany. See Manners of the Germans, s. 1. note f; and s. 29. note a.

RHODANUS, a famous river of Gaul, rising on Mount Adula, not far from the head of the Rhine. After a considerable circuit it enters the Lake of Geneva, and in its course visits the city of Lyons, and from that place traverses a large tract of country, and falls into the Mediterranean. It is now called the Rhone.

RHODUS, a celebrated island in the Mediterranean, near the coast of Asia Minor, over-against Caria. The place of retreat for the discontented Romans. Tiberius made that use of it.

RHOXOLANI, a people on the north of the Palus Maeotis, situate along the Tanais, now the Don.

RICODULUM, a town of the Treviri on the Moselle.

S.

SABRINA, now the Severn; a river that rises in Montgomeryshire, and running by Shrewsbury, Worcester, and Glocester, empties itself into the Bristol Channel, separating Wales from England.

SALA. It seems that two rivers of this name were intended by Tacitus, One, now called the Issel, which had a communication with the Rhine, by means of the canal made by Drusus, the father of Germanicus. The other SALA was a river in the country now called Thuringia, described by Tacitus as yielding salt, which the inhabitants considered as the peculiar favour of heaven. The salt, however, was found in the salt springs near the river, which runs northward into the Albis, or Elbe.

SALAMIS, an island near the coast of Attica, opposite to Eleusis. There was also a town of the name of Salamis, on the eastern coast of Cyprus, built by Teucer, when driven by his father from his native island. Horace says, Ambiguam tellure novâ Salamina futuram.

SAMARIA, the capital of the country of that name in Palestine; the residence of the kings of Israel, and afterwards of Herod. Samaritans, the name of the people. Some magnificent ruins of the place are still remaining.

SAMBULOS, a mountain in the territory of the Parthians, with the river Corma near it. The mountain and the river are mentioned by Tacitus only.

SAMNIS, or SAMNITES, a people of ancient Italy, extending on both sides of the Apennine, famous in the Roman wars.

SAMOS, an island of Asia Minor, opposite to Ephesus; the birth-place of Pythagoras, who was thence called the Samian Sage.

SAMOTHRACIA, an island of Thrace, in the Egean Sea, opposite to the mouth of the Hebrus. There were mysteries of initiation celebrated in this island, held in as high repute as those of Eleusis; with a sacred and inviolable asylum.

SARDES, the capital of Lydia, at the foot of Mount Tmolus, from which the Pactolus ran down through the heart of the city. The inhabitants were called Sardicni.

SARDINIA, an island on the Sea of Liguria, lying to the south of Corsica. It is said that an herb grew there, which, when eaten, produced a painful grin, called Sardonius risus. The island now belongs to the Duke of Saxony, with the title of king.

SARMATIA, called also Scythia, a northern country of vast extent, and divided into Europaea and Asiatica; the former beginning at the Vistula (its western boundary), and comprising Russia, part of Poland, Prussia, and Lithuania; and the latter bounded on the west by Sarmatia Europaea and the Tanais (the Don), extending south as far as Mount Caucasus and the Caspian Sea, containing Tartary, Circassia, &c.

SAXA RUBRA, a place on the Flamminian road in Etruria, nine miles from Rome.

SCEPTEUCI, a people of Asiatic Sarmatia, between the Euxine and the Caspian Sea.

SCYTHIA, a large country, now properly Crim Tartary; in ancient geography divided in Scythia Asiatica, on either side of Mount Imaus; and Scythia Europaea, about the Euxine Sea and the Maeotic Lake. See also SARMATIA.

SEGESTUM, a town of Sicily, near Mount Eryx, famous for a temple sacred to the Erycinian Venus.

SELEUCIA, a city of Mesopotamia, situate at the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris; now called Bagdad. We find in ancient geography several cities of this name.

SEMNONES, a people of Germany, called by Tacitus the most illustrious branch of the Suevi. They inhabited between the Albis and Viadrus.

SENENSIS COLONIA, now Sienna, in Tuscany.

SENONES, inhabitants of Celtic Gaul, situate on the Sequana (now the Seine); a people famous for their invasion of Italy, and taking and burning Rome A.U.C. 364.

SEQUANI, a people of Belgic Gaul, inhabiting the country now called Franche Comté or the Upper Burgundy, and deriving their name from the Sequana (now the Seine), which, rising near Dijon in Burgundy, runs through Paris, and, traversing Normandy, falls into the British Channel near Havre de Grace.

SERIPHOS, a small island in the AEgean Sea, one of the Cyclades: now Serfo, or Serfanto.

SICAMBRI, an ancient people of Lower Germany, between the Maese and the Rhine, where Guelderland is. They were transplanted by Augustus to the west side of the Rhine. Horace says to that emperor, Te caede gaudentes Sicambri compositis venerantur armis.

SILURES, a people of Britain, situate on the Severn and the Bristol Channel; now South Wales, comprising Glamorgan, Radnorshire, Hereford, and Monmouth. See Camden.

SIMBRUINI COLLES, the Simbruine Hills, so called from the Simbruina Stagna, or lakes formed by the river Anio, which gave the name of Sublaqueum to the neighbouring town.

SINOPE, one of the most famous cities in the territory of Pontus. It was taken by Lucullus in the Mithridatic war, and afterwards received Roman colonies. It was the birth-place of Diogenes the cynic, who was banished from his country. The place is still called Sinope, a port town of Asiatic Turkey, on the Euxine.

SINUESSA, a town of Latium, on the confines of Campania, beyond the river Liris (now called Garigliano). The place was much frequented for the salubrity of its waters.

SIPYLUS, a mountain of Lydia, near which Livy says the Romans obtained a complete victory over Antiochas.

SIRACI, a people of Asia, between the Euxine and the Caspian Seas.

SMYRNA, a city of Ionia in the Hither Asia, which laid a claim to the birth of Homer. The name of Smyrna still remains in a port town of Asiatic Turkey.

SOPHENE, a country between the Greater and the Lesser Armenia; now called Zoph.

SOZA, a city of the Dandaridae.

SPELUNCA, a small town near Fondi, on the coast of Naples.

STAECHADES, five islands, now called the Hieres, on the coast of Provence.

STRATONICE, a town of Caria in the Hither Asia, so called after Stratonice, the wife of Antiochus.

SUEVI, a great and warlike people of ancient Germany, who occupied a prodigious tract of country. See Manners of the Germans, s. 38. and note a.

SUNICI, a people removed from Germany to Gallia Belgica. According to Cluverius, they inhabited the duchy of Limburg.

SWINDEN, a liver that flows on the confines of the Dahae. It is mentioned by Tacitus only. Brotier supposes it to be what is now called Herirud, or La Riviere d'Herat.

SYENE, a town in the Higher Egypt, towards the borders of Ethiopia, situate on the Nile. It lies under the tropic of Cancer, as is evident, says Pliny the elder, from there being no shadow projected at noon at the summer solstice. It was, for a long time, the boundary of the Roman empire. A garrison was stationed there: Juvenal was sent to command there by Domitian, who, by conferring that unlocked for honour, meant, with covered malice, to punish the poet for his reflection on Paris the comedian, a native of Egypt, and a favourite at court.

SYRACUSE, one of the noblest cities in Sicily. The Romans took it during the second Punic war, on which occasion the great Archimedes lost his life. It is now destroyed, and no remains of the place are left. Etiam periere ruinae.

SYRIA, a country of the Hither Asia, between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates, so extensive that Palestine, or the Holy Land, was deemed a part of Syria.

SYRTES, the deserts of Barbary: also two dangerous sandy gulfs in the Mediterranean, on the coast of Barbary; one called Syrtis Magna, now the Gulf of Sidra; the other Syrtis Parva, now the Gulf of Cassos.

T.

TANAIS, the Don, a very large river in Scythia, dividing Asia from Europe. It rises in Muscovy, and flowing through Crim Tartary, runs into the Palus Maeotis, near the city now called Azoff, in the hands of the Turks.

TARENTUM, now Tarento, in the province of Otranto. The Lacedemonians founded a colony there, and thence it was called by Horace, Lacedaemonium Tarentum.

TARICHAEA, a town of Galilee. It was besieged and taken by Vespasian, who sent six thousand of the prisoners to assist in cutting a passage through the isthmus of Corinth.

TARRACINA, a city of the Volsci in Latium, near the mouth of the Ufens, in the Campania of Rome. Now Terracina, on the Tuscan Sea.

TARRACO, the capital of a division of Spain, called by the Romans Tarraconensis; now Taragon, a port town in Catalonia, on the Mediterranean, to the west of Barcelona. See HISPANIA.

TARTARUS, a river running between the Po and the Athesis, (the Adige) from west to east, into the Adriatic; now Tartaro.

TAUNUS, a mountain of Germany, on the other side of the Rhine; now Mount Heyrick, over-against Mentz.

TAURANNITII, a people who occupied a district of Armenia Major, not far from Tigranocerta.

TAURI, a people inhabiting the Taurica Chersonesus, on the Euxine. The country is now called Crim Tartary.

TAURINI, a people dwelling at the foot of the Alps. Their capital was called, after Augustus Caesar, who planted a colony, there, Augusta Taurinorum. The modern name is Turin, the capital of Piedmont.

TAURUS, the greatest mountain in Asia, extending from the Indian to the AEgean Sea; said to be fifty miles over, and fifteen hundred long. Its extremity to the north is called Imaus.

TELEBOAE, a people of AEolia or Acarnania in Greece, who removed to Italy, and settled in the isle of Capreae.

TEMNOS, an inland town of AEolia, in the Hither Asia.

TENCTERI, a people of Germany. See the Manners of the Germans, s. 32.

TENOS, one of the Cyclades.

TERMES, a city in the Hither Spain; now a village called Tiermes, in Castille.

TERRACINA, a city of the Volsci in Latium, near the mouth of the Ufens, on the Tuscan Sea; now called Terracina, in the territory of Rome.

TEUTOBURGIUM, a forest in Germany, rendered famous by the slaughter of Varus and his legions. It began in the country of the Marsi, and extended to Paderborn, Osnaburg, and Munster, between the Ems and the Luppia.

THALA, a town in Numidia, destroyed in the war of Julius Caesar against Juba.

THEBAE, a very ancient town in the Higher Egypt, on the east side of the Nile, famous for its hundred gates. Another city of the same name in Bœotia, in Greece, said to have been built by Cadmus. It had the honour of producing two illustrious chiefs, Epaminondas and Pelopidas, and Pindar the celebrated poet. Alexander rased it to the ground; but spared the house and family of Pindar.

THERMES otherwise THERMA, a town in Macedonia, afterwards called Thessalonica, famous for two epistles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians. The city stood at the head of a large bay, called Thermaeus Sinus; now Golfo di Salonichi.

THESSALY, a country of Greece, formerly a great part of Macedonia.

THRACIA, an extensive region, bounded to the north by Mount Haemus, to the south by the AEgean Sea, and by the Euxine and Propontis to the east. In the time of Tiberius it was an independent kingdom, but afterwards made a Roman province.

THUBASCUM, a town of Mauritania in Africa.

THURII, a people of ancient Italy, inhabiting a part of Lucania, between the rivers Crathis (now Crate), and Sybaris (now Sibari).

TIBER, a town of ancient Latium, situate on the Anio, about twenty miles from Rome. Here Horace had his villa, and it was the frequent retreat of Augustus. Now Tivoli.

TICINUM, a town of Insubria, situate on the river Ticinus, near its confluence with the Po; now Pavia, in Milan.

TICINUS, a river of Italy falling into the Po, near the city of Ticinum, or Pavia; now Tesino.

TIGRANOCERTA, a town of Armenia Major, built by Tigranes in the time of the Mithridatic war. The river Nicephorus washes one side of the town. Brotier says, it is now called Sert or Sered.

TIGRIS, a great river bounding the country called Mesopotamia to the east, while the Euphrates incloses it to the west. Pliny gives an account of the Tigris, in its rise and progress, till it sinks under ground near Mount Taurus, and breaks forth again with a rapid current, falling at last into the Persian Gulf. It divides into two channels at Seleucia.

TMOLUS, a mountain of Lydia, commended for its vines, its saffron, its fragrant shrubs, and the fountain-head of the Pactolus. It appears from Tacitus, that there was a town of the same name, that stood near the mountain.

TOLBIACUM, a town of Gallia Belgica; now Zulpich, or Zulch, a small town in the duchy of Juliers.

TRALLES, formerly a rich and populous city of Lydia, not far from the river Meander. The ruins are still visible.

TRAPEZUS, now Trapezond or Trebizond, a city with a port in the Lesser Asia, on the Euxine.

TREVIRI, the people of Treves; an ancient city of the Lower Germany, on the Moselle. It was made a Roman colony by Augustus, and became the most famous city of Belgic Gaul. It is now the capital of an electorate of the same name.

TRIBOCI, a people of Belgica, originally Germans. They inhabited Alsace, and the diocese of Strasbourg.

TRIMETUS, an island in the Adriatic; one of those which the ancients called Insulae Diomedeae; it still retains the name of Tremiti. It lies near the coast of the Capitanate, a province of the kingdom of Naples, on the Gulf of Venice.

TRINOBANTES, a people of Britain, who inhabited Middlesex and Essex.

TUBANTES, an ancient people of Germany, about Westphalia.

TUNGRI, a people of Belgia. Their city, according to Caesar, Atuaca; now Tongeren, in the bishopric of Liege.

TURONII, a people of ancient Gaul, inhabiting the east side of the Ligeris (now the Loire). Hence the modern name of Tours.

TUSCULUM, a town of Latium, to the north of Alba, about twelve miles from Rome. It gave the name of Tusculanum to Cicero's villa, where that great orator wrote his Tusculan Questions.

TYRUS, an ancient city of Phœnicia, situate on an island so near the continent, that Alexander the Great formed it into a peninsula, by the mole or causey which he threw up during the siege. See Curtius, lib. iv. s. 7.

U.

UBIAN ALTAR, an altar erected by the Ubii, on their removal to the western side of the Rhine, in honour of Augustus; but whether this was at a different place, or the town of the Ubii, is not known.

UBII, a people originally of Germany, but transplanted by Augustus to the west side of the Rhine, under the conduct of Agrippa. Their capital was then for a long time called Oppidum Ubiorum, and, at last, changed by the empress Agrippina to Colonia Agrippinensis; now Cologne, the capital of the electorate of that name.

UMBRIA, a division of Italy, to the south-east of Etruria, between the Adriatic and the Nar.

UNSINGIS, a river of Germany, running into the sea, near Groningen; now the Hunsing.

URBINUM, now Urbino, a city for ever famous for having given birth to Raphael, the celebrated painter.

USIPII, or USIPETES, a people of Germany, who, after their expulsion by the Catti, settled near Paderborn. See Manners of the Germans, s. 32. and note a.

USPE, a town in the territory of the Siraci; now destroyed.

V.

VADA, a town on the left-hand side of the Nile, in the island of Batavia.

VAHALIS, a branch of the Rhine; now the Waal. See Manners of the Germans, s. 29. and note a.

VANGIONES, originally inhabitants of Germany, but afterwards settled in Gaul; now the diocese of Worms.

VASCONES, a people who inhabited near the Pyrenees, occupying lands both in Spain and Gaul.

VELABRUM, a place at Rome, between Mount Aventine and Mount Palatine, generally under water, from the overflowing of the Tiber. Propertius describes it elegantly, lib. iv. eleg. x. Qua Velabra suo stagnabant flumine, quáque
Nauta per urbanas velificabat aquas.

VELINUS, a lake in the country of the Sabines.

VENETI, a people of Gallia Celtica, who inhabited what is now called Vannes, in the south of Britanny, and also a considerable tract on the other side of the Alps, extending from the Po along the Adriatic, to the mouth of the Ister.

VERCELLAE, now Vercelli in Piedmont.

VERONA, now Verona, in the territory of Venice, on the Adige.

VESONTIUM, the capital of the Sequani; now Besançon, the chief city of Burgundy.

VETERA, i.e. Vetera Castra. The Old Camp, which was a fortified station for the legions; now Santen, in the duchy of Cleves, not far from the Rhine.

VIA SALARIA, a road leading from the salt-works at Ostia to the country of the Sabines.

VIADRUS, now the Oder, running through Silesia, Brandenburg, Pomerania, and discharging itself into the Baltic.

VICETIA, now Vicenza, a town in the territory of Venice.

VIENNAE, a city of Narbonese Gaul; now Vienne, in Dauphiné.

VINDELICI, a people inhabiting the country of Vindelicia, near the Danube, with the Raehti to the south; now part of Bavaria and Suabia.

VINDONISSA, now Windisch, in the canton of Bern, in Swisserland.

VISURGIS, a river of Germany, made famous by the slaughter of Varus and his legions; now the Weser, running north between Westphalia and Lower Saxony, into the German Sea.

VOCETIUS MONS, a mountain of the Helvetii, thought to be the roughest part of Mount Jura, to which the Helvetii fled when defeated by Caecina. See Hist. i. s. 67.

VOLSCI, a powerful people of ancient Latium, extending from Antium, their capital, to the Upper Liris, and the confines of Campania.

VULSINII, or VOLSINII, a city of Etruria, the native place of Sejanus; now Bolseno, or Bolsenna.

Z.

ZEUGMA, a town on the Euphrates, famous for a bridge over the river. See Pliny, lib, v. s. 24.

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