63 B.C. - Pompey makes the region of Judah/Israel a client kingdom of Rome.
6 A.D. - Augustus makes it a Roman province (Judaea).
66 - 73. - Revolt.
70. - Romans occupy Jerusalem. Titus destroys the Second Temple.
73. - Masada suicide.
131. - Emperor Hadrian renames Jerusalem "Aelia Capitolina" and forbids Jews there.
132-135. - Bar Kochba revolt against Hadrian. Judaea becomes the province of Syria-Palestine.
III. 250 until either an earthquake in 363 or the Byzantine Era.
Chancey and Porter ("The Archaeology of Roman Palestine") say Pompey took those territories that were not Jewish out of the hands of Jerusalem. Peraea in the Transjordan retained a Jewish population. The 10 non-Jewish cities in Transjordan were named the Decapolis.They commemorated their liberation from the Hasmonean rulers on coins. Under Trajan, in A.D. 106, the regions of Transjordan were made into the province of Arabia.
"The Archaeology of Roman Palestine," by Mark Alan Chancey and Adam Lowry Porter; Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 64, No. 4 (Dec., 2001), pp. 164-203.
The Byzantine Era followed, running from Emperor Diocletian (284-305) or Constantine (306-337), in the fourth century, to the Muslim conquest, in the early 7th century. For more on this late period, see: "An Empire's New Holy Land: The Byzantine Period," by S. Thomas Parker; Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 62, No. 3 (Sep., 1999), pp. 134-180.