Wars, Warfare, and Battles
By N.S. Gill, About.com Guide
Greek Wars and Battles
Greek history is marked out by the major battles and wars. The first of them, the Trojan War, preceded the historical record.
Roman Wars and Battles
Roman history was punctuated with almost yearly campaigns. Some of these were like gang turf wars, but others were significant. Over time Rome developed its fighters into a well-oiled machine that dominated the Mediterranean by the end of the second century B.C.
- Timeline of Roman Battles
- Wars of the Roman Republic
- The Samnite Wars
- The Slave Wars
- The 3 Punic Wars
- The Social War
- Caesar's Gallic Wars
- The Battle at Pharsalus
- The Battle of Actium
- The Teutoberg Forest Disaster
- The Battle of Adrianople
- The Marcomannic Wars
- Roman-Italian Treaties
The Egyptians recorded in great detail a battle they may not have won. We know about their battles from boastful inscriptions about the pharaohs.
The Roman fighting style started like the Greeks' and developed, incorporating lessons learned from its enemies. They fought in groups called legions whose size changed over time. To get the armed and weighted down men from place A to B, they perfected the Roman road.
- About the Roman Army
- Camps of the Roman Army
- The Roman Arsenal
- The Worst Roman Defeats
- Did Roman Soldiers Eat Meat?
The Trojan War
Although the Trojan War is known mostly through myth and legend, it was an important starting point for the history of Greece.
The Persian Wars
The Greeks fought the Persians under two kings in a series of battles. One of the most famous of the battles is the Battle at Thermopylae, the basis for the movie "300".
- Persian Wars Timeline
- Introduction to the Persian Wars
- Battle of Thermopylae Basics
- 10 Names to Know From the Battle of Thermopylae
- The Battle of Salamis
The Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War was fought between the allies of Athens and the allies of Sparta. Between the war and its aftermath, the Peloponnesian War left Greece sufficiently weakened for Philip of Macedonia and his son Alexander the Great to take control.
- Timeline of the Peloponnesian War
- Causes of the Peloponnesian War
- Sources on the Peloponnesian War
- Delian League
The Punic Wars
The Punic Wars featured war elephants, the crossing of the Alps, catastrophic Roman defeats, and perhaps a punitive salting of the earth when Rome, inevitably, won.
Books on the Greek and Roman Military
Military and ancient historians continue to study ancient warfare. Even though the major battles were fought millennia ago, writers continue to interpret events anew. Here are some reviews and lists of books to read on topics in Greek and Roman warfare.
- Review of "The Trojan War: A New History," by Barry Strauss
- Review of "The Battle of Salamis," by Barry Strauss
- Review of "The Makers of Ancient Strategy," Editor: Victor Davis Hanson
- Review of "The Battle of Marathon," by Peter Krentz
- Peloponnesian War Books