The protagonist Ajax in Sophocles' Ajax tragedy exhibits hubris by thinking he does not need the help of Zeus. Sophocles' Oedipus exhibits hubris when he refuses to accept his fate. In Greek tragedy, hubris leads to conflict, if not punishment or death, although when Orestes hubristically took it upon himself to revenge his father -- by killing his mother, Athena exonerated him.
In Attic law hubris (insulting, degrading treatment) was a more serious offence than aikia (bodily ill-treatment). It was the subject of a State criminal prosecution (graphê), aikia of a private action (dikê) for damages. The penalty was assessed in court, and might even be death. It had to be proven that the defendant struck the first blow.
Hubris is a Featured Thursday's Term to Learn.