Bennett's New Latin Grammar says there are 3 basic forms of the ablative case:
- The ablative proper
- The instrumental
- The locative.
The word ablative comes from the Latin verb aufero, which comes from ab 'away' + fero 'take, carry', so the ablative proper refers to 'taking away'. The other two uses, locative and instrumental ablatives, were later additions.
- ablative of separation,
- ablative of source,
- ablative of agent, and
- ablative of comparison.
- attendant circumstances,
- degree of difference,
- specification, and
- the ablative absolute.
- place and
- place where and
- place from which;
- time at which and
- time within which.
Manner, Accompaniment, Place, Time, Separation, Etc.:
- Ablatives of manner and accompaniment often take the prepostion "cum".
- Ablatives of place may take the prepositions in, ab, or ex (or no prepostion).
- Ablatives of time may also take the preposition in and
- the ablative of separation may take the preposition ab.
Prepositions With Ablative Complements:
a, ab = from, away from
e, ex = from, out of
de = from, down from, concerning, about
cum = with, together with
sine = without
in = in, on
sub = under
pro = for
Some Ablatives in "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" 12:
My reading; there are other possibilities:
- prepositional place from which (from Spain and Gaul)
- ablative absolute (when matters in those provinces had been carried out well)
- ablative absolute (when Tiberius Nero and Publius Quintilius were consuls)
- prepositional place (for my return)
- prepositional place where (on which)
If you have other suggestions, please email them to me.