Tomyris became queen of the Massegetai upon the death of her husband. Cyrus of Persia wanted her kingdom and offered to marry her for it, but she declined, so, of course, they fought each other, instead. Cyrus tricked the section of Tomyris' army led by her son, who was taken prisoner and committed suicide. Then the army of Tomyris ranged itself against the Persians, defeated it, and killed King Cyrus.
Queen ArtemisiaArtemisia, queen of Herodotus' homeland of Halicarnassus, gained renown for her brave, manly actions in the Greco-Persian Wars' Battle of Salamis. Artemisia was a member of the Persian Great King Xerxes' multi-national invading force.
- "Traces of Longinus' Library in Eusebius' 'Praeparatio Evangelica'"
The Classical Quarterly, (2001).
- "Numismatic Evidence"
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, (1987).
Queen Samsi (Shamsi) of ArabiaIn 732 B.C. Samsi rebelled against Assyrian King Tiglath Pileser III (745-727 B.C.) by refusing tribute and perhaps by giving aid to Damascus for an unsuccessful fight against Assyria. The Assyrian king captured her cities; she was forced to flee to the desert. Suffering, she surrendered and was forced to pay tribute to the king. Although an officer of Tiglath Pileser III was stationed at her court, Samsi was allowed to continue to rule. 17 years later, she was still sending tribute to Sargon II.
- Tiglath Pileser
- A Short History of the Tribes of Ancient North Arabia
- [URL = www.lothene.demon.co.uk] Women as Warriors in Prehistory
- "Pre-Islamic Arab Queens," by Nabia Abbott. American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures
The Trung SistersAfter two centuries of Chinese rule, the Vietnamese rose up against them under the leadership of two sisters, Trung Trac and Trung Nhi, who gathered an army of 80,000. They trained 36 women to be generals and drove the Chinese out of Viet Nam in A.D. 40. Trung Trac was then named ruler and renamed "Trung Vuong" or "She-king Trung." They continued to fight the Chinese for three years, but eventually, unsuccessful, they committed suicide.
For more on the sisters, see:
- "The 1920s Women's Rights Debates in Vietnam"
The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3 (May, 1976).
- "Kateb Yacine's Journey beyond Algeria and Back"
Pamela A. Pears
Research in African Literatures, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Autumn, 2003).